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Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
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Abstract 



In 1999, the Maine Forest Service (MFS) and USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and 
Analysis (FIA) program implemented a new system for inventorying and monitoring Maine's 
forests. A salient feature of the new inventory process is a nearly threefold improvement in 
timeliness as full inventories are completed every 5 years. The 2003 results represent the first 
full set of annual inventory and growth data since the end of the extreme spruce-budworm 
epidemic (SBE) of the 1 970's and 1 980's. The effects of the SBE continue to affect the 
composition, structure, and distribution of Maine's forested ecosystems. Insight into current 
forest dynamics will help stakeholders plan for potential future disturbances like SBE. The area 
of forest land in Maine has remained stable since the 1970's. Although relatively small acreages 
of forest are converted to other land uses these conversions often remove highly valued forests 
such as white pine. The total inventory volume of live trees increased slightly, indicating the 
beginning of a response of Maine's forest to the tremendous devastation from SBE. The spatial 
distribution of sapling-size spruce and fir across the State reveals a general abundance of 
regeneration, foretelling waves of merchantable wood in coming years. 



The Authors 

WILLIAM H. MCWILLIAMS, BRETT J. BUTLER, DOUGLAS M. GRIFFITH, MICHAEL L. 
HOPPUS, ANDREW J. LISTER, TONYA W. LISTER, RANDALL S. MORIN, LUCRETIA B. 
STEWART, and JAMES A. WESTFALL are foresters with the Northeastern Research Station's 
Forest Inventory and Analysis unit in Newtown Square, PA. JAMES STEINMAN is a forester 
with Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry. CHRISTOPHER W. WOODALL is a research 
forester with the North Central Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis unit in St. Paul, 
MN. LAURENCE E. CALDWELL is a private forestry consultant, Turner, ME. KENNETH M. 
LAUSTSEN is biometrician with the Maine Forest Service, Augusta, ME. STEVEN A. SADER 
is a professor of forest resources and JACOB W. METZLER is a geospatial specialist with the 
Forest Society of Maine at Bangor. DAVID W. WILLIAMS is an entomologist with the USDA 
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Otis ANGB, MA. ANDREW WHITMAN is research 
scientist with Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, Brunswick, ME. 



Acknowledgments 

We thank members of the field staff for their hard work and dedication in collecting the sample 
data used in this report: 



Scott Barnes 
Chad Barton 
Liza Batchelor 
Sacha Begg 
Jay Benner 
Aaron Bishop 
Joe Bither 
Greg Bjork 
Joshua Brown 
Bob Chandler 



Everett Cram 
Ronna Coleman 
Mike Devine 
Jamie Dow 
Kristen Dubord 
Melanie Duffy 
Dan Edgecomb 
Matthew Gallucci 
Jeff Harriman 
John Hoyt 



Allison Kanoti 
Keith Kanoti 
Catherine Kropp 
Jeff Martin 
Brian McAuthur 
Jason Morrison 
Kathy Murray 
Stephen Pawlowski 
Alexander Peacock 
Dan Peers 



Scott Peterson 
Brian Reader 
Mike Skinner 
Grayln Smith 
Christina Stacey 
Eric Therriault 
Jonathan Tyler 
Jeff Wazenegger 
Charles Willette 



Manuscript received for publication 6 December 2004 




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Contents 

Brief 1 

Resource Conditions 1 

Outlook 6 

Policy Implications 7 

Introduction 9 

Spruce Budworm 10 

The Annual Inventory: Results from the First 5 Years 11 

Forest Land 11 

Location and Trends 11 

Urbanization 14 

Forest-Land Ownership 16 

Forest Type, Habitat Type, Stand-Diameter Class, and Stocking 20 

Stand Structure 31 

Low Basal-Area Conditions 32 

Harvest Disturbance 35 

Numbers of Trees 36 

Standing Dead Trees 39 

Down Woody Material 40 

Distribution of Tree Species 42 

Shrubs and Vines 45 

Biomass 47 

Inventory Volume 48 

Sawtimber Volume 52 

Wood Availability 56 

Components of Inventory Volume Change 57 

Growing Stock 57 

Live Tree 58 

SawTimber 60 

Mortality 64 

Timber Products Output 66 

Forest Health Parameters 68 

Tree Damage 68 

Crown Condition 70 

Ground-Level Ozone Injury 70 

Lichens 72 



Soil Erosion 74 

Vegetation Diversity and Structure 75 

Literature Cited 76 

Appendix 80 

Annual Inventory Design 80 

Phase 1 80 

Phase 2 80 

Phase 3 81 

Ensuring Consistency with Previous Inventories 81 

Statistical Significance 82 

Benefits: More Rapid and Complete Resource Analyses 82 

Definition of Terms 84 

2003 Tables 91 

1995 Tables 145 

1982 Tables 167 



Brief 

In 1999, the Maine Forest Service (MFS) and 
the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and 
Analysis (FIA) program implemented a new 
system for inventorying and monitoring Maine's 
forest resources. The most obvious benefit of the 
new system is a nearly threefold improvement in 
timeliness. The extension of the sample includes a 
broader range of measurements that will help analysts 
understand the relationships between resource 
change and underlying ecological variables. The 
following is a summary of resource conditions, a 
prospective future outlook, and policy implications 
related to the principal findings of this report. 

Resource Conditions 

• With 17.8 million acres of forest land, 
Maine is the most heavily forested state in 
the Nation at 90 percent. The State's forest 
has been essentially stable for the last several 
decades (Fig. 1). 

• There have been multiple shifts in acreage 
among owner groups during the last 45 
years. Public ownership has increased steadily 
yet it constitutes a small portion of Maine's 
forest land. The ownership of Maine's large 
private forests is changing. Over the last 
several decades, industrial owners have 
reduced their holdings while a new category 
of investor owners that includes timber 
investment management organizations, real 
estate investment trusts, and limited liability 
corporations have increased their holdings 
(Fig. 2). 

• Unlike forests in other timber-producing 
states, most of Maine's forests are naturally 
regenerated stands that are managed 
extensively (Fig. 3). These stands comprise 46 




1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 

Year 

Figure 1.-Area of forest land, Maine, 1660-2003, (Irland, 1998). 



12,000 




Public 



Forest Industry Non-Industrial 
Private Forestland 



Figure 2. — Timberland acreage by owner group, Maine, 1959, 1971, 
1982, 1995, 2003. 



Artificial Regeneration 
2.1 % 




Natural Regeneration 
97.9 % 

Figure 3. — Percent of timberland by 
stand origin, Maine, 2003 (Laustsen 
2004, personal communication). 



commercial tree species. Species with the most 
trees 1 inch or larger in diameter at breast 
height (d.b.h.) are balsam fir (35 percent), red 
maple (12); red, white, and black spruce (11), 
sugar maple, yellow birch, and American beech 
(11). This indicates these stands are diverse 
and closely resemble "natural" forests. The 
small portion of Maine's forest that is managed 
intensively includes plantation, precommercial 
thinning (spacing), and conifer release (Fig. 4). 

Maine's underlying forest habitat is 38 
percent hardwood and 62 percent softwood 
types (Fig. 5), but this acreage currently is 
occupied by 59 percent hardwood and 41 
percent softwood forest types. This is an 
artifact of mixed-wood stands and recovery 
following spruce budworm outbreaks, and 
reflects the difference between FIA estimates 
of existing vegetative cover and habitat 
classification that represents potential 
natural vegetation of a site. 

The volume of timber on Maine's forests 
is nearly double that in 1952 (Fig. 6). 
Current estimates of growth and harvest are 
essentially equal (0.35 cord/acre/year). 

Regenerating forest stands in Maine 
generally is not a concern as natural 
regeneration typically results in as many as 
tens of thousands of seedlings/acre within 
several years of a disturbance. Over the 
long term, the vegetative composition of 



Precommercial Thinning 
(Spacing) 
1.7 % 

Conifer Release 
"ONLY" 
2.1 % 



Plantations 
1.4% 




Extensively 
Managed 
94.8 % 



Figure 4. — Percent of timberland by management practice, 
Maine, 2003 (Laustsen 2004, personal communication). 




Hardwood Habitat 

38 % 



Softwood Habitat 
62 % 



Figure 5. — Distribution of softwood and hardwood habitat groups, 
Maine, 2003. 





330 




300 




270 




240 






-o 


210 


o 




o 

c 


180 


o 






150 


i 






120 




90 




60 




30 








I 1982 



1971 



2003 



1959 



1944 



1952 



1933 



1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 

Year 



Figure 6. — Volume of pulpwood quality or better trees on timberland, 
Maine, 1933, 1944, 1952, 1959, 1971, 1982, 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001, 
2002, and 2003. Confidence intervals (95 percent) are shown for the 
1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003 annual inventory results. 



Low/No Basal Area 

2 % 




Large Sawtimber 
9 % 



Sapling 

25% 



r 



Small Sawtimber 
21 % 



Poletimber 

43 % 

Figure 7. — Percent of timberland by stand-diameter class, 
Maine, 2003. 



Low/No Basal Area 

2 % 

Overstocked 
21 % 

Understocked 
19 % 



Sub-Optimal 

23 % 




Optimal 

35 % 



Figure 8. — Percent of timberland by FIBER stocking region, 
Maine, 2003. 



Land-Use Change 
1 % 



Clearcut 
4% 



Partial Harvest 
65% 




Shelterwood 
30 % 



these stands reflects the underlying habitat 
type. 

The major groupings and the current 
distribution of Maine's timberland by stand- 
diameter class reveal that one-fourth of 
Maine's timberland is in sapling-size stands 
(Fig. 7). Poletimber and sawtimber-size stands 
account for 43 and 30 percent, respectively. 
Large sawtimber comprises only 9 percent of 
the timberland. 

The major groupings and the current 
distribution of Maine's timberlands by 
stocking region are shown in Figure 8. 
Stocking regions are categories related to 
stand development guides. About one-third 
of Maine's timberland is in the optimal class. 
The suboptimal and overstocked classes 
account for 23 and 2 1 percent, respectively. 

Currently, timber is harvested on nearly 
562,000 acres/year. Most of this activity 
consists of partial harvesting or shelterwood 
cutting (Fig. 9). 

Eastern white pine and six major hardwood 
species (sugar maple, red maple, yellow and 
white birch, aspen, and northern red oak) 
consistently account for 90 percent of the 
sawtimber volume usually graded for quality, 
and volumes of sawtimber have increased 
steadily over the 45-year inventory period 
(Fig. 10). 



Figure 9. — Percent of timberland by harvest type, Maine (MFS 
1996-2003). 



3 



White pine has shown a small but steady 
increase in the average size of sawtimber 
trees over the inventory period, peaking 
at 14.8 inches during the last 8 years (Fig. 
11). The average diameter of the major 
hardwoods declined slightly but then 
recovered during the same period. The 
current average, 14.4 inches, has remained 
stable over the last 8 years. 

Volume of sawtimber per acre of 
timberland acre is a measure used to assess 
trends. Both white pine (73 percent) and 
the major hardwoods (95 percent) have 
shown steady increases over the inventory 
period (Fig. 12). 

The stocking and distribution of large trees 
(at least 16 inches d.b.h.) greatly affect 
wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and stand 
structure. The relative distribution of large 
trees in Maine's forests is shown in Figure 
13. 

The distribution of sawtimber volume by 
tree grade (quality) for the two most recent 
inventories shows improvement for sugar 
and red maple, yellow and white birch, and 
aspen. This improvement is apparent from 
the increase in the percentage of grade 1 
and 2 material. When all sawtimber size 
classes are considered, the quality of white 
pine decreased while northern red oak 
showed little change (Fig. 14). However, 
the distribution is influenced heavily 
by tree size. When only trees at least 15 
inches d.b.h. are considered, white pine 
shows little change while northern red oak 
improves slightly. 



18,000 

- 15,000 
a 

£ 12,000 

I- 

m 9,000 

J 6,000 



3,000 




■ 1959 

□ 1971 

□ 1982 
g 1995 

■ 2003 



White Pine 



Major Hardwoods 



Figure 10. — Volume of white pine and major hardwood sawtimber, 
Maine, 1959, 1971, 1982, 1995, 2003, 




■ 1959 
01971 
□ 1982 

■ 1995 

■ 2003 



White Pine 



Major Hardwoods 



Figure 1 1 . — Quadratic mean diameter of sawtimber trees for white pine 
and major hardwoods, Maine, 1959, 1971, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



Q. 



O 
00 



1,200 



900 



600 



300 



□ White Pine 

■ Major Hardwoods 



509 
I — l 



962 991 



291 

1 




1959 1971 1982 1995 2003 

Figure 12. — Average volume of sawtimber per timberland acre for 
white pine and major hardwoods (red and sugar maple, yellow and 
white birch, aspen, and northern red oak), Maine 1959, 1971, 1982, 
1995, 2003. 



Softwoods 



Hardwoods 



All Species 




Figure 1 3. — Estimated number of trees per acre greater than 16.0 inches in diameter at breast height, Maine, 2003. 



21 



28 



51 



26 



28 



46 



18 



45 



38 



10 



40 



27 



53 



20 



15 



53 



32 



15 



53 



32 



10 



48 



42 



12 



36 



56 



38 



56 



□ Grades 4 & 5 

□ Grade 3 

□ Grades 1 & 2 



1995 2003 1995 2003 1995 2003 1995 2003 1995 2003 1995 2003 
White Pine Sugar Maple Red Maple Yellow and White Aspen Northern Red Oak 



Figure 14. — Percentage of sawtimber volume on timberland by tree grade for white pine 
and major hardwood species, Maine, 1995 and 2003. 



5 



Lichen Species 



Damage 



Mortality 




Figure 15. — Number of late-successional 

lichen species, Maine 2003. Figure 16.— Beech damage and mortality, Maine, 2003. 



• Certain species of lichens occur only on older 
trees. The distribution of those species is shown in 
Figure 15. 

• Terminal harvests constitute a large share of total 
harvests for white pine and northern red oak— 
25 percent and 39 percent, respectively, of total 
annual removal. 

• The continued vigor of beech is at risk due to 
factors such as drought and disease. Areas with 
the greatest impact are shown in dark red in 
Figure 16. 

• To date in Maine, assessments of forest health by 
FIA have not revealed ozone-related plant damage. 

• FIA data indicate that Maine's forests have a low 
diversity of shrub/vine species. Only 23 percent 
of the plot samples contain more than four of 
the species tallied, most of which are deciduous 
shrubs. Many deciduous shrub species have 
tremendous value to wildlife. 

• Maine's forests have high fuel loads, posing an 
extreme fire risk at long intervals associated with 
prolonged drought. These conditions occur when 
organic material in soils dries to the point that it 
becomes flammable. 



Outlook 

• If growth and harvest rates are maintained at 
current levels, timber volumes will remain stable 
and then likely increase as stands recovering 
from spruce budworm outbreaks grow to 
merchantable size. 

• The long-term implications of the increased 
frequency of harvesting Maine's forest resources 
are unclear. Timber harvesting has increased 
from nearly 250,000 to more than 500,000 acres 
annually, and has shifted from clearcutting to 
largely "partial harvesting." 

• It is not known how long the reversion of 
agricultural land throughout the State will 
continue to balance the amount of land 
converted to development (mostly in southern 
Maine). 

• That harvests from site conversions account for 
25 and 39 percent of the annual harvest for white 
pine and red oak, respectively, has implications 
for the future supply of these species. 

• With respect to the timber supply, the 
importance of small nonindustrial private forest- 
land owners is increasing. Because of the large 



6 



number of these owners, the fragmented spatial 
distribution of their forests, and a perceived 
reluctance to harvest, it is difficult for resource 
planners to coordinate management strategies. 

It is not known how changes in land ownership 
in Maine (e.g., number of small ownerships and 
shift from the forest industry owners to investors) 
will affect long-term timber management and 
availability. 

Invasive exotic pests likely will pose a greater 
threat in the future. For example: 

o Balsam woolly adelgid, which in the past has 
been limited to the coastal area of Maine, 
has expanded to inland areas and is causing 
significant mortality of balsam fir. 

o Hemlock woolly adelgid is now established 
in extreme southern Maine and is expanding 
northward. 

o Maine's forests could be threatened by the 
emerald ash borer, which is expanding from 
Michigan, and Phytophthora ramorum, which 
causes sudden oak death. 
The latter is expanding 
from nursery stock in 
California, but it is not 
known whether P. 
ramorum can survive in 
Maine's climate. 

If current trends continue, 
there will be declining 
inventories of species such 
as beech (largely because of 
beech bark disease) and aspen. At the same time, 
there will be increased inventories of species such 
as sugar maple, white ash, northern red oak, and 
yellow birch. These changes will influence wildlife 
habitats and other resource values. 

With respect to changes in stand structure on an 
acreage basis, the impact of the spruce budworm 
epidemic in Maine rivals that of other forest 
disturbances in the Eastern United States over 
the last century. Merchantable-size stands will 
reemerge over the next 25 years as waves of 




young spruce-fir mature. The result will be a 
large block of acreage in a relatively even-age 
condition, much like the condition of spruce-fir 
early in the last century. 

• Because the most recent FIA data have not been 
modeled, we cannot accurately predict when 
the new sapling-size stands of spruce-fir in areas 
affected by spruce budworm mortality or salvage 
harvests will grow to merchantable size for 
harvesting. 

Policy Implications 

• The annual inventories of Maine's forest 
resource have been extremely valuable and will 
continue to provide information needed for 
informed decisionmaking on forestry issues. 
The diversity of the underlying forest stands 
and associated issues elevate the importance 
and complexity of these inventories. The 
data generated are particularly important in 
addressing both timber and nontimber values, 
for example, assessing wildlife habitat conditions 

and biodiversity and 
predicting the vulnerability 
of Maine's forests to 
invasive exotic pests. 

• Monitoring growth 
and harvest levels and 
predicting future growth 
rates will require careful 
attention, particularly for 
species like white pine and 
red oak, which account 
for a large portion of the harvest due to site 
conversion. 

Growth and yield modeling and modeling of 
future forest conditions at the stand level are 
needed so that we can: 

o Predict when sapling-size spruce-fir stands will 
grow to merchantable size. 

o Monitor species-specific inventory gains and 
declines and their effect on the timber supply, 
quality trends, wildlife habitat, and other 
ecosystem values. 




o Increase timber yields from Maine's forests 
through improved utilization and more 
intensive management. 

o Improve our understanding of the trends in the 
quality of timber for Maine's forest-products 
industry. 

Planning for wildfire suppression in Maine should 
take into account that at long intervals, the threat 
of fire is extremely high when soil organic matter 
dries to the point that it can burn. 

There is a need to evaluate the implications 
for timber supplies and other forest values of 
increasing the amount of acreage harvested 
annually, as well as the effect of shifting from 
clearcutting to partial 
harvesting. 

The potential threat from 
invasive exotic pests will 
require increased monitoring. 

There is a need to evaluate 
the impact on timber supply 
and other forest values from 
declining inventories of 
species such as beech and 
aspen, increasing inventories 
of species such as sugar maple, 
white ash, northern red oak, 
and yellow birch, and the 
reliance on timber volumes 
from site conversion for white 
pine and red oak. 

There is a need to evaluate 
the effect of changes in 

ownership (e.g., number of small landowners and 
shift from industry owners to investors) on timber 
supply/ avaiability and the stability of the land base 
managed actively for forestry. 

The conversion of forest land to other uses 
threatens future sustainability in the southern 
portion of the State. Monitoring and evaluation of 
this trend should continue. 




Courtesy of Maine Forest Service 



The structural characteristics of forest land in 
Maine have undergone major changes. Currently, 
there are large blocks of forest in the early stages 
of succession; other areas contain one-, two-, and 
multistory stands. This more complex structure 
benefits certain nontimber values and may require 
new harvest and management strategies. 

Management planners must consider whether 
the abundance of balsam fir in the next forest 
(currently nearly 40 percent of sapling-size trees) 
could make Maine's forests vulnerable to another 
spruce budworm epidemic as they mature. 

As Maine's young forest grows, considerable 
spruce-fir acreage will offer opportunities for 

intensive management, including 
precommercial thinning in 
stands less than 20 years old and 
commercial thinning in older 
stands. These activities can increase 
yields while reducing risk and 
mortality. 

• Maine's spruce-fir forests tend 
to dominate management and 
polity discussions because of the 
importance of this type (e.g., 
special value in papermaking). 
However, there are many other 
forested ecosystems with important 
values and complex issues. For 
example, recent increases in 
demand for hardwoods for both 
pulp and sawlogs have created 
opportunities for managing and 
developing deciduous forests. Hemlock woolly 
adelgid could destroy hemlock across its range and 
the decline of beech affects the major source of 
hard mast for fauna. 

Public concerns for nontimber resources such as 
noteworthy plant and wildlife habitats, sensitive 
areas, water quality, biodiversity, and providing 
public access and recreation opportunities likely 
will continue to be high-profile forest policy issues 
for the foreseeable future. 




Introduction 

In this bulletin we analyze forest vitality (health) based on data from the first full annual inventory 
of Maine's forest resources conducted by FIA and the MFS. Previous annual reports have been 
published since the new annual inventory system was implemented in 1999 (MFS 2000; Griffith 
and Laustsen 2001; Laustsen and Griffith 2002; Laustsen and others 2003). Past periodic 
inventories were published in 
1959 (Ferguson and Longwood 
1960), 1971 (Ferguson and 
Kingsley 1972), 1982 (Powell 
and Dickson 1984), and 1995 
(Griffith 1996). This first full 
report includes data collected 
over the first 5 years following 
the implementation of the new 
FIA annual inventory system. For 
simplicity, the 5-year inventory 
date is referred to as 2003. 

Perhaps the most compelling 
objective of this report was to 
work toward merging FIA's 
national inventory protocols with 
the specific issues and needs of 
Maine's stakeholders. The degree 

to which this report serves the forestry community is a measure of success in meeting this objective. 
The process of customizing the inventory and analysis to the needs of Maine's clients is an ongoing 
process. Policy discussions aimed at improving the FIA inventory system began in earnest following 
the 1995 inventory of Maine. It was clear that periodic inventories with cycle lengths exceeding 10 
years did not address the needs of the State's stakeholders. Both federal and state legislation of the 
late 1990 s resulted in a federal mandate to conduct annual inventories across the United States and 
a state mandate for Maine. The results of these early deliberations provided considerable input for 
developing improved analytical constructs for the new system. 

A draft outline for this report was developed using the improved constructs and comments that 
emerged from discussions of previous annual reports. Then in the spring of 2004, two stakeholder 
listening sessions were held to solicit further suggestions. It was agreed that this report should 
focus on the salient findings of the FIA inventory but also incorporate closely related data that 
clarify or extend the utility of the findings. For example, Bureau of Census population data 
provide information on the urbanization of forest land. The intent is to focus on basic findings of 
the inventory and avoid specialized analyses that are better addressed in separate studies. In some 
cases, it is recognized that existing FIA data may not fully quantify the required variables for a 
specific analysis. For example, the information on change components (net growth, removals, and 
mortality) will not be based on a full remeasurement of sample plots until the second 5-year cycle 
is completed. FIA indicators are presented geospatially where possible to gain insight into Maine's 
current forest condition, recent changes, and prospective future trends. The intent is to provide 
timely and relevant analyses for the creation of wise-use policies affecting the forest-land base. 



9 




Figure 17. — Frequency of eastern spruce budworm defoliation in North America (1954-88). 



Spruce Budworm 

The impact of the eastern spruce budworm underlies resource changes in Maine's forests. Two 
major outbreaks occurred in the past century. The most recent spruce budworm epidemic (SBE) 
began in the late 1960s and was a major force through the mid-1980s, devastating stands 
containing spruce and especially balsam fir (Brann and others 1985, Trial 1989). Salvage harvests 
began during the mid-1970s and harvesting remained heavy through the 1990s. As a result, 
removals have exceeded growth. High levels of fir and spruce mortality associated with harvest 
activity reduced the inventory (Irland and McWilliams 1997). A map for outbreaks covering the 
SBE years clearly shows the significance of Maine's outbreaks (Fig. 17) as it depicts the frequency 
of occurrence of aerially detectable defoliation from 1954 to 1988. The severity of budworm 
activity varied considerably from stand to stand in a given year. Stands containing significant 
stocking of balsam fir were impacted most severely. The most extensive and severe damage from 
SBE in Eastern North America occurred over a large area of Aroostook County, Maine, and New 
Brunswick, Canada. The effect of SBE on the ecology and management of Maine's spruce-fir 
forests has rivaled similar landscape-level disturbances in the Eastern United States by gypsy moth, 
southern pine beetle, and the large-scale conversion of natural pine stands to plantations across the 
Coastal Plain of the Eastern United States. Throughout this report, such impacts are reflected in 
changes in the major habitat types, stand-diameter classes, and stocking levels, as well as inventory 
volume, net growth, removals, and mortality. 



10 



The Annual Inventory: Results from the First 5 Years 



Forest Land 

Location and Trends 

Forests cover 17.7 million acres or 90 percent of the land 
area of Maine (Fig. 18; Appendix Table Al). Maine has 
the highest proportion of forest land of any state. The 
other primary land uses are agriculture (3 percent) and 
"other" (7 percent). All but 3 percent of the forested 
acreage is classified as timberland or forest land capable of 
producing commercial crops of wood and not restricted 
from harvest. Forest land includes reserved forest land 
in Baxter Park and other public holdings, unproductive 
forest land, and other lands that meet the FIA definition 
of forest but are not available for timber harvest. 

At the time of European settlement around 1630, the 
estimated area of forest land in what is now Maine was 
18.2 million acres (Smith and others 2001). As settlement 
increased, the area in forest land decreased (Irland 1999) 
(Fig. 19). This trend continued in Maine until the early 
1900s. The area of forest in the State peaked around 
1971 and has been stable since then. The current estimate 
of forest land is not significantly different from the 1982 
or 1995 estimates. 




Figure 18. — Location of forest land, Maine, 2003. 



25 



a 15 



10 



llillllll 

1630 1907 1938 1959 1971 1982 1995 2003 
Year 



Figure 19. — Area of forest land, Maine, 
1630-2003. Confidence intervals (95- 
percent level) are shown for 1 971 , 1 982, 
1995, and 2003. 



1 1 




The use of inventory regions facilitates analysis of areas 
that are relatively homogeneous for variables such as 
physiography, climate, ownership, and management 
regimes. It is difficult to combine Maine's counties into 
analysis regions because of their size and latitudinal 
breadth. For example, Penobscot County spans well 
over a degree of latitude and includes both organized 
and unorganized townships. To overcome this difficulty, 
Maine's inventory regions were combined into four 
megaregions (Fig. 20). Even these regions do not 




Figure 21. — Area of forest land by megaregion, Maine 1982, 
1995, 2003. 



fully delineate the north-south differences in resource 
conditions. 

Current estimates for the four megaregions confirm 
the stability of Maine's forest-land base. No region is 
experiencing a great loss of forest land (Fig. 21). These 
changes in acreage are the net result of acreage entering 
and leaving forest land. Of the total FIA sample, only 37 
samples representing about 220,000 acres shifted either 
to or from forest land. The distribution of those plots is: 



Land 



use 



Additions to forest Diversions from forest 



Agriculture 

Urban/other 

Wet/water 



Denied access/hazardous - 



Note: Denied access/hazardous samples are not measured, so it is nor 
known whether the location is forested. 

This does not minimize the importance of forest- 
land conversion that is occurring in populated (e.g., 
southern Maine) and other areas, nor its impact on wood 
availability. 



12 



Biophysical Regions and Watersheds 

A complex mix of biotic and abiotic factors determines forest composition, 
structure, and function. Traditional geopolitical boundaries such as the FIA 
inventory regions are not always correlated with these natural phenomena. 
To place FIA data in an ecological context, they have been summarized by 
biophysical region and watershed. 

Maine's diverse landscape can be mapped into logical reporting units using 
biological and physical characteristics. McMahon (1990) developed 15 
biophysical regions for Maine (Fig. 22). McMahon (1998) refined the regions 
and harmonized Maine's regions with those of other eastern states (Keys and 
others 1995), increasing biophysical regions in Maine to 19. In this report, 
the earlier work of McMahon was used to overcome the statistical limitation 
of a small sample size associated with smaller polygons (Table 1 ). 

Because there has been considerable interest in forest-inventory summaries 
by watershed, FIA samples were further summarized by U.S. Geological 
Survey hydrologic units at a level that maintains an adequate number of 
samples (Watermolen 2002) (Figure 23 and Table 2). 

The biophysical regions and watershed summaries are examples of how 
FIA data can be used beyond traditional timber assessments. Other in-depth 
analyses could be conducted for specific issues of interest. For example, a 
survey of tree-species diversity by watershed could add to current research 
related to the larger issue of biodiversity. 




Figure 22. — Biophysical regions of Maine 
(Maine Dep. of Conserv. 2003). 



13 



Table 1. — Distribution 


of forest land by biophysical region, Maine, 2003 






Percent Percent 


Diopnysical region 


T J 

Land area 


Forest land forest of total 




— Thousands 


of acres— 




Aroostook Hills 


1,532.4 


1,398.7 91 


8 


Aroostook Lowlands 


874.2 


625.2 72 


4 


Boundary Plateau 


1,002.4 


990.5 99 


5 


Central Interior 


2,275.5 


1,773.8 78 


12 


Central Mountains 


1,607.3 


1,546.7 96 


8 


East Coastal Region 


670.0 


575.8 86 


3 


Eastern Interior 


2,159.9 


2,073.7 96 


11 


Eastern Lowlands 


769.3 


742.1 96 


4 


Midcoast Region 


356.2 


264.8 74 


2 


Penobscot Bay Region 


566.2 


424.2 75 


3 


Saint John Uplands 


2,545.2 


2,502.2 98 


13 


South Coastal Region 


390.0 


229.5 59 


1 


Southwest Interior 


1,019.2 


855.7 84 


5 


Western Foothills 


1,431.3 


1,281.9 90 


7 


Western Mountains 


2,552.3 


2,432.6 95 


13 


Total 


19,751.5 


17,717.5 90 


100 


Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 




Table 2. — Distribution of forest Ian 


d by major watershed, 


Maine, 2003 














Percent 


Watershed 


Land area 


Forest land 


forest 




— Thousands of acres— 




Androscoggin 


1,716.0 


1,480.2 


86 


Kennebec 


3,574.1 


3,173.5 


89 


Maine Coastal 


3,154.1 


2,765.9 


88 


Penobscot 


5,242.0 


4,959.9 


95 


Saco 


1,504.2 


1,165.0 


77 


St. John 


4,561.0 


4,173.1 


91 


Total 


19,751.5 


17,717.5 


90 


Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



Urbanization 

Urban forests include trees and associated vegetation 
within urban, suburban, and industrial settings. These 
forests often differ from their rural counterparts in 
forest structure and function as they can be exposed to 
unique abiotic and biotic pressures associated with their 
proximity to cities (Zipperer and Pouyat 1995). Urban 
forests offer environmental benefits such as habitat for 
wildlife, aesthetic enjoyment, visual barriers, climate 
control, water improvement, and air and noise pollution 
abatement. 



FIA has published estimates of urban forest area in 
previous statistical reports. These estimates are based 
on a visual inspection of the land uses surrounding 
each inventory plot. Forested sample locations that are 
bordered by developed land on three sides are designated 
as urban forest locations. Because of the subjective nature 
of this field call for urban forest and the small number of 
plot locations sampled, the error associated with state- 
and county-level estimates of urban forest area is high. 
The FIA field classification is useful for local analyses but 
an alternative method for calculating urban forest area 



14 



Table 3. — Distribution of forest land by population density class, Maine 
(source: U.S. Bureau of Census 2000 and MRLC 1992) 



Persons per square mile 

FIA region 0-25 25-50 51-100 101-250 251-500 501-1000 1000+ 



■Perce fit- 



Washington 


95 


4 




1 






Aroostook 


95 


3 


2 








Penobscot 


69 


15 


12 


3 


1 




Hancock 


68 


21 


9 


2 






Piscataquis 


97 


2 










Capital Region 


10 


37 


40 


12 


1 




Somerset 


87 


8 


4 








Casco Bay 


3 


14 


39 


35 


6 


2 1 


Western 


77 


14 


6 


2 






All regions 


76 


10 


9 


4 


1 





Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



has been developed that identifies areas of forest within 
a state that fall in U.S. Census-designated urban areas or 
in areas of high population density. Urban forest 
statistics were calculated using data on forest-land 
distribution from satellite derived land-cover maps 
(Vogelman and others 2001) and urban area and 
population data from the 2000 Census. For areas 
not officially classified as urban by the Census, 
population-density classes are displayed based 
on census tracts. Multi-Resolution Land Cover 
(MRLC) data are somewhat dated (1992) but allow 
a useful baseline estimate for comparison with 
a newer classification of 2002 data that is under 
development. 

Less than 0.5 percent of Maine's forests is in urban 

areas designated by the U.S. Bureau of Census 

(Fig. 24). Cumberland County has the highest 

percentage of heavily populated urban forest with 

1 6 percent. Most of Maine's counties have little 

forest land within densely populated areas 

(Table 3), particularly counties within unorganized 

townships. This does not minimize the potential 

effect of urbanization on the availability of 

traditional resources from forests in an urban 

setting in some areas of Maine (Wear and others 1999). 




H o 

I I 1-25 
I I 25-50 

I 500-1000 

H > i ooo _^ 

I Urban area 



Figure 24. — Location of forest land in Maine by population 
density and urban status (U.S. Bureau of Census 2002). 



15 



Forest-Land Ownership 

FIA conducts the National Woodland Owner Survey 
(NWOS) as a social survey complementing the forest 
inventory. Data presented here are based on survey 
responses from 189 families and individuals who own 
forest land in Maine. As with the base FIA program, the 
NWOS is implemented on an annual basis and estimates 
will improve as responses from additional forest-land 
owners are received. 

Private forest land in Maine is distributed evenly among 
families and individuals, forest industry, and other private 
groups (Fig. 25). Forest industry and other private groups 
own the majority of forest land in the northern portion 
of the state, while families and individuals own a majority 



Federal 
1% 



State 

4<y o Local 
1% 



Other corporate 
31% 




Families and 
individuals 
32% 



Forest industry 

31% 

Figure 25. — Forest-land ownership (percent of area) 
Maine. 2003. 



of the forest land in southern Maine (Fig. 26). Six 
percent of forest land is under the stewardship of public 
agencies. The State, primarily under the Bureau of Parks 
and Lands, is the dominant public owner and controls an 
estimated 743,000 acres of forest land (Table 4). 




Ownership Class 
| | Federal 
I State 



J Local 



| I Forest industry 
| Other corporate 
| Individual/family 

I I Nonforest 
I Water 



Figure 26. — Location of forest land by ownership class, 
Maine, 2003. 



Table 4. — Forest land area in Maine by ownership type, 2003 
(numbers in parentheses are standard errors) 





Public 






Private 






Federal 


State 


Local 


Total Family 


Business 3 


Total 


All ownerships 




155 
(29) 


743 
(62) 


179 
(31) 


1,076 5,690 
(76) (131) 


10,951 
(142) 


16,641 
(193) 


17,718 
(7) 



a Includes corporations, nonfamily partnerships, tribal lands, nongovernmental organizations, clubs, or other 
nonfamilv groups. 

Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



16 



laUlv • iilCa allt 


numhpr 


of family-owned forests 


in Maine by 


size of ownership, 2003 


Forest 
holdings (acres) 




Area 




Ownerships 




Count 


Acres 


SE 


Percent 


Nnmnpr 


SE 


Percent 




— Thousands — 




— Thousan 


ds — 






1 -9 


445 


171 


7 8 


132 


41 


S 

j J -j 




1 0-40 


1,215 


214 


91 4 


57 


9 


z. J.O 


41 




1,393 


220 


24.5 


22 


3 


9.8 


47 


100-499 


1,660 


228 


29.2 


10 


1 


4.6 


56 


500-999 


296 


160 


5.2 


<1 


<1 


0.2 


10 


1000-4999 


385 


167 


6.8 


<1 


<1 


0.1 


13 


5000+ 


296 


160 


5.2 


<1 


<1 


<0.1 


7 


Total 


5,690 


131 


100.0 


222 


41 


100.0 


189 



Private ownership of Maine's forest lands has been 
dynamic over the last 2 decades. Initially, millions of acres 
of forest land were transferred among forest industry 
firms as they merged and realigned landholdings. 
Eventually, a number of these companies became less 
inclined to own forest land and more willing to rely 
on wood procured on the open market. This more 
recent shift in corporate philosophy is driven by market 
forces and the desire to reduce debt and realign assets 
to concentrate on core businesses. Despite this shift in 
philosophy, forest-industry landholdings in the State are 
substantial. 



As for nonindustrial owners, results from the NWOS 
indicate that an estimated 222,000 families and 
individuals own 5.7 million acres of forest land in 
Maine. They are the dominant land-ownership group 
in the southeast and south-central portions of the State. 
While 60 percent of these owners own fewer than 10 
acres of forest land (Table 5), the majority of the family 
and individual forest land is owned by people with 
landholdings of 50 to 500 acres (Fig. 27). Large parcels 
are more common in the unorganized regions of the State 
(Fig. 28). 



As the landholdings of forest industry decreased, the area 
of forest land owned by other private entities 
increased. Between 1995 and 2003, the area of 
forest land in Maine owned by other corporate 
private owners increased by approximately 60 
percent. The majority of this land (78 percent) 
came from forest industry; the remainder 
was acquired from families and individuals. 
These other corporate private entities include 
institutional investors such as pension funds, 
and land acquired on the behalf of individuals; 
most of these lands are managed by private 
companies, including timberland investment 
management organizations. 



1,800 

1,600 

1,400 

% 1,200 
c 

S 1,000 

o 

§. 800 
05 
<s> 

o 600 
< 

400 
200 






1-9 



10-49 50-99 100-499 

Landholding Size (acres) 



500+ 



Figure 27. — Total forest land by size of ownership for families and 
individuals, Maine, 2003. 



17 




Figure 28. — Distribution of land by parcel size, Maine, 
2003 



The families and individuals have diverse ownership and 
forest management objectives. The most common reasons 
for owning forest land are related to aesthetics and 
privacy and/or the fact that the land is a part of a family 
legacy. Other common reasons for ownership include 
recreational opportunities, including hunting and fishing, 
land investment, and timber production (Table 6). 

While about one-third of family and individual owners 
have harvested trees from their land in the past 5 years 
(Table 7), less than 5 percent have a written forest 
management plan (Table 8). A higher proportion of 
owners, 14 percent, have sought management advice. As 
the size of an owner's landholdings increases, so does the 
likelihood that he/she has a written management plan 
and has sought management advice. 

Property taxes and the ability to maintain the land 
within the family are the greatest concerns of family and 
indivitual owners. Such concerns may be related to the 
finding that 9 percent of the forest land is owned by 
people who plan to sell their land or pass it on to their 
heirs in the next 5 years (Tables 9-10). 



Table 6. — Area and number of family-owned forests in Maine by reason for owning forest land, 2003 
(includes owners who ranked each objective as very important or important on seven-point Likert scale) 

Area Ownerships 



Reason a 


Acres 


SE 


Percent 


Number 


SE 


Percent 


Count 




— Thousan 


ds — 




— Thousands— 






Aesthetics 


3,823 


233 


67.2 


166 


39 


74.8 


126 


Nature protection 


3,023 


244 


53.1 


117 


35 


52.7 


99 


Land investment 


2,223 


240 


39.1 


68 


21 


30.6 


72 


Part of farm, home, or cabin b 


800 


194 


14.1 


54 


31 


24.3 


27 


Privacy 


3,793 


234 


66.7 


194 


41 


87.4 


126 


Family legacy 


2,845 


244 


50.0 


114 


36 


51.4 


94 


Nontimber forest products 


533 


178 


9.4 


9 


4 


4.1 


16 


Firewood production 


1,511 


224 


26.6 


30 


9 


13.5 


49 


Timber production 


1,749 


231 


30.7 


12 


2 


5.4 • 


56 


Hunting or fishing 


1,837 


233 


32.3 


59 


31 


26.6 


60 


Other recreation 


2,252 


240 


39.6 


86 


33 


38.7 


74 


No answer 


119 


143 


2.1 


5 


3 


2.3 


4 



a Categories are not exclusive. 

b Includes primary and secondary residences. 

Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



18 



Table 7. — Area and number of family-owned forests in Maine by recent (past 5 years) forestry activity, 2003 







Area 






Ownerships 






Activity a 


Acres 


SE 


Percent 


Number 


SE 


Percent 


Count 




— Thousands— 




— Thousands — 






1 imber harvest 


2,658 


256 


A.6 7 


81 


37 

■J 1 


3£ ^ 
jo. 9 


7^ 

IJ 


collection or in ins 


1 397 


231 


94 £ 


17 

J- / 


4 


7 7 


38 
9o 


Site preparation 


356 

*j j yj 


165 


^ 3 
O.J 


24 


16 


1U.O 


1 9 
1 Z 


11CC pidllllllii 


593 

J y J 


182 


1 4 


33 


17 


14 9 


90 


Fire Hazard reduction 


1 393 


220 


94 ^ 


41 


12 


1 8 ^ 
10.9 


*0 


Application of chemicals 


1 78 
I/O 


1 4Q 


3 1 
0. 1 


33 


30 


1 4 Q 


/C 

o 


Road/trail maintenance 


2,223 


240 


3Q 1 


78 


32 


3^ 1 
99- i 


74 


w liQiite naDitat improvement 


593 


182 


i o 4 


44 


31 


1 Q 8 
1 J.o 


90 
zu 


Posting land 


833 


344 


1 4 

1 '-i.O 


6 


7 


9 7 
Z. / 


o 


Private recreation 


2,498 


465 


43.9 


115 


142 


CI o 

51.8 


1 o 

18 


Public recreation 


1,110 


380 


19.5 


96 


142 


43.2 


8 


Cost share 


415 


169 


7.3 


2 


1 


0.9 


14 


Conservation easement c 


119 


59 


2.1 


1 


1 


0.5 


4 


Green certification c 


207 


152 


3.6 


1 


1 


0.5 


7 



a Categories are not exclusive. 

b NTFPs = nontimber forest products 

c Not limited to past 5 years. 

Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



Table 8. — Area and number of family-owned forests, by management plan, advice sought, and source of advice, 
Maine, 2003 



Item 




Area 






Ownerships 




Count 


Acres 


SE 


Percent 


Number 


SE 


Percent 




— Thousands— 




— Thousands— 






Written management plan 
















Yes 


1,778 


231 


31.2 


10 


2 


4.5 


57 


No 


3,734 


235 


65.6 


208 


41 


93.7 


126 


No answer 


178 


149 


3.1 


4 


2 


1.8 


6 


Sought advice 
















Yes 


2,163 


239 


38.0 


32 


8 


14.4 


71 


No 


3,408 


241 


59.9 


188 


41 


84.7 


114 


No answer 


119 


143 


2.1 


3 


2 


1.4 


4 


Advice source a 
















State forestry agency 


741 


191 


13.0 


9 


4 


4.1 


23 


Extension 


356 


165 


6.3 


2 


1 


0.9 


12 


Other state agency 


119 


143 


2.1 


1 


1 


0.5 


4 


Federal agency 


237 


155 


4.2 


1 





0.5 


8 


Private consultant 


1156 


211 


20.3 


11 


3 


5.0 


39 


Forest industry forester 


385 


167 


6.8 


3 


1 


1.4 


13 


Logger 


563 


180 


9.9 


5 


2 


2.3 


19 


Other landowner 


415 


169 


7.3 


3 


1 


1.4 


14 



a Categories are not exclusive. 

Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



19 



Table 9. — Area and number of family-owned forests in Maine by owners' concerns, 2003 (includes owners 
who ranked each issue as very important or important on seven-point Likert scale 

Area Ownerships 



Concern a 


Acres 


SE 


Percent 


Number 


SE 


Percent 


Count 




— Thousan 


ds— 




— Tho 


usands— 






Endangered species 


1,363 


229 


24.0 


62 


37 


27.9 


38 


Property taxes 


3,101 


256 


54.5 


111 


39 


50.0 


89 


Family legacy 


2,726 


257 


47.9 


115 


42 


51.8 


77 


Lawsuits 


1,397 


231 


24.6 


58 


36 


26.1 


39 


Harvesting regulations 


2,453 


255 


43.1 


47 


14 


21.2 


69 


Land development 


1,840 


245 


32.3 


117 


43 


52.7 


52 


Noise pollution 


1,533 


236 


26.9 


83 


39 


37.4 


43 


Trespassing 


1,840 


245 


32.3 


90 


39 


40.5 


52 


Timber theft 


1,499 


234 


26.3 


48 


17 


21.6 


4f 


Dumping 


2,385 


254 


41.9 


63 


19 


28.4 


68 


Air or water pollution 


2,317 


253 


40.7 


116 


40 


52.3 


66 


Fxorir nlanr snprips 


1,056 


216 


18.6 


80 


39 


36.0 


29 


Domestic animals 


273 


161 


4.8 


3 


1 


1.4 


8 


Wild animals 


443 


176 


7.8 


39 


21 


17.6 


13 


Fire 


2794 


257 


49.1 


83 


24 


37.4 


80 


Insects/diseases 


2215 


252 


38.9 


71 


21 


32.0 


63 


Regeneration 


681 


194 


12.0 


34 


21 


15.3 


18 


Storms 


1,908 


246 


33.5 


97 


42 


43.7 


54 



a Categories are not exclusive. 

Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



Forest Type, Habitat Type, Stand-Diameter Class, and 
Stocking 

Maine's forests have experienced tremendous change 
over the last three decades. Understanding this change 
requires measures of forest composition and structure. 
Composition is often addressed by classifying forest 
land according to the makeup of "existing" or "potential 
natural" tree vegetation. Two such measures are examined 
in this report: the traditional FIA forest type and 
habitat type. Measures of structure typically describe 
the relative size of and degree of site occupancy by trees. 
An alternative diameter-based size class that uses basal 
area per acre as a measure of site occupancy is presented 
herein. 



The FIA forest-type and stand-size class variables are 
calculated using a national algorithm that provides 
consistent classification of dominant tree-species 
composition for all states and regions of the country. 1 
The resulting information can be compared across large 
forested landscapes and provides input to national and 
international resource studies. Changes to the algorithm 



'Arner, Stanford L.; Woudenberg, S; Waters, S.; Vissage, J.; 
MaClean, C; Thompson, M. 2000. National algorithm for 
determining stocking class, stand size class, and forest type 
for forest inventory and analysis plots. On file with the 
Northeastern Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis, 
1 1 Campus Blvd., Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073. 



20 



Table 10. — Area and number of family-owned forests by owners' future (5-year) plans for their land, Maine, 2003 

Area Ownerships 



Future plans a 


Acres 


SE 


Percent 


Number 


SE 


Percent 


Count 




Tho 


1 1 n H <; 




— Thousands— 






Txlo artivirv 

L y \J ClV^Ll V 1 L y 


682 


187 

X \J / 


12.0 


J 1 


zu 


25 7 


23 


IVXlllllllcXl cl \_ L 1 V 1 L y 


1 926 


235 


33 8 






42 3 


65 


H^rvp^t firpwoon 


2 312 


241 


40.6 


4Z 


1 1 
1 1 


18 9 

X KJ . J 


76 


Warvp^t sawlocs or niilnwnorl 

X i-.li VCOl OtlVVlWfcitJ Ul UU1L/VVUUU 


1,867 


233 


32.8 


ZZ 


J 


9 9 


62 


Collect NTFPs b 


579 


187 


10.2 


/: 
o 


Z 


2 7 


16 


SpII 3 1 1 or n^rt of tann 

iJvll •.111 W 1 L 'ttl L Ul IdlllX 


741 

/ ~ J- 


191 


1 3 


14 


6 


6 3 


25 


nTran^fpr all or nart of lann to npir*; 

XldllOlvl till V '1 I 'til L wl lil 1 Iv! t V ' 1 1 i. 1 1 . i 


919 


200 


16.2 


20 


6 


9 


31 


Subdivide all or part of land 


I/O 


145 


Z.O 








O O 


5 


Buy more forest land 


771 


192 


13.6 


8 


3 


3.6 


26 


Land-use conversion (forest to other) 


356 


165 


6.3 


4 


1 


1.8 


12 


Land-use conversion (other to forest) 


119 


143 


2.1 








0.0 


4 


No current plans 


296 


160 


5.2 


16 


8 


7.2 


10 


No answer 





131 


0.0 








0.0 






a Categories are not exclusive. 

b NTFPs = nontimber forest products 

Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



have caused FIA to modify estimates for the 1982 and 
1995 inventories based on the latest classification scheme. 
To overcome this, the previous three inventories were 
reprocessed using the latest approach. The results are 
summarized by ownership class in Table 1 1 . To illustrate 
the utility of the FIA forest-type groups for large-scale 
analysis, Maine's spruce/fir forest land is compared to 
other leading spruce/fir states: 



Maine 
Minnesota 
Michigan 
Wisconsin 



Thousand acres 
5,829.9 
3,777.3 
2,684.9 
1,300.9 



As shown, Maine continues to lead the Nation in 
total spruce/fir forest land. The reprocessed forest type 
information is presented in detail in the Appendix, (the 
information in the Appendix is for timberland acreage 
only). 



The traditional FIA forest-type classification presents 
a challenge to resource analysts attempting to track 
composition shifts in Maine. The large amount of 
disturbance that has occurred over the period since the 
1982 inventory makes it difficult to assess when, where, 
and how changes in forest habitat are affecting forest 
conditions in Maine. The FIA forest-type variable assesses 
existing vegetation based on the dominant overstory 
at the time of measurement. A prime example of the 
difficulty of interpreting FIA types occurs in heavily 
disturbed spruce/fir acreage. Transitional deciduous 
species often occupy these sites temporarily and have 
a major impact on the forest-type classification and 
resultant shifts over time. Another issue with the FIA 
forest type is that the naming scheme was designed 
to address regional and national needs rather than 
nomenclature typically used in Maine. To overcome these 
issues, an alternative approach was used. The approach 
considers potential natural vegetation, termed "habitat 



21 



Table 1 1 . — Area of forest land by FIA forest-type group and ownership class, Maine, 2003 



Ownership class 

Nonindustrial 

Forest type group Forest Service Other federal State/local/public Forest industry private Total 



Thousands of acres- 



w nite/ reel/ tacK pme 




7 £ 
/ .o 


ACs Q 1AA 1 


1 C\AA i 


1 %A9. 8 
Uto.o 


Spruce/fir 


5.9 


35.5 


346.8 2243.8 


3197.6 


5829.6 


Exotic softwood 


u.u 


u.u 


I.J u.u 


1 1 .0 


1 O 1 


plantations 












1 ill/ / r"\ i n 

WdK./ pillc 


0.0 


0.0 


z.\).j /.o.^t 


Z.OJ.J 




Oak/hickory 


0.0 


0.0 


10.1 10.2 


299.8 


320.0 


OakV gum/ cypress 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 0.0 


1 1 7 
11./ 


1 1 7 
11./ 


Elm/ash/red maple 


0.0 


0.0 


32.6 82.1 


292.4 


407.2 


Maple/beech/birch 


41.3 


22.1 


309.1 2243.9 


4439.2 


7055.6 


Aspen/birch 


0.0 


35.3 


147.9 666.2 


1492.5 


2341.9 


Nonstocked 


0.0 


1.4 


0.0 2.8 


45.1 


49.3 


Total 


53.1 


101.9 


921.4 5521.6 


11119.6 


17717.5 


Note: Data may not add 


to totals due to rounding. 








Table 12. — Area of forest land by habitat type and ownership class, Maine, 2003 










O 


wnership class 












Nonindustrial 






Habitat type 




Public Forest industry private 


Total 








Thousands of acres 
















Beech/red maple 




157.1 758.7 


1736.2 


2652.1 




Cedar/black spruce 




165.8 569.5 


988.9 


1724.3 




Hemlock/ red spruce 




63.7 460.5 


1142.8 


1666.9 




Oak/white pine 




61.1 80.4 


1351.0 


1492.5 




Spruce/balsam fir 




481.3 2646.0 


4395.9 


7523.2 




Sugar maple/ ash 




147.3 1006.4 


1504.8 


2658.6 




Total 




1076.4 5521.6 


11119.6 


17717.6 




Note: Data may not add 


to totals due to rounding. 








type," to estimate the most likely long-term composition 


silvicultural priorities (Gadzi 


k and others 1998; Wagner 


for a given site. Habitat types inc 


icate the probable 


and others 2003). 






climax or late-successional species composition that is 








determined by biophysical relationships relating to site 


Table 12 shows the distribution of forest land by habitat 


quality. Habitat types are based on the work of Leak 


type and ownership class for 


comparison with the FIA 


(1982) and are used in 


the FIBER model (Solomon and 


forest-type group results. Th 


s basic difference between 


others 1995). The same approach for classifying forest 


philosophies is evident when estimates for sp 


ruce/fir 


land has been used to project future timber supplies and 


using the two approaches are 


compared. The 


spruce/fir 



22 



forest-type group was estimated at 5,829,600 acres 
compared to 7,523,200 acres of spruce/fir habitat type. 
The larger acreage for the latter type reflects the inclusion 
of forest land that is currently dominated by transitional 
species, typically intolerant hardwoods. The habitat- 
type assignment considered information other than the 
current dominance by hardwoods. The classification 
takes into consideration previous forest composition, soil 
conditions, and whether there are spruce or fir seedlings 
sampled. 

The standard FIA measure of stand size provides a 
general indication of stand development stage and is 
referred to as "stand-size class." Each sampled condition 
is assigned to one of three stand-size classes based on 
the class that accounts for the most stocking of live trees 
per acre: sapling/seedling, poletimber, and sawtimber 
(see Definition of Terms). In this report, the variable 
for stand-size class was modified to provide three 
improvements that were deemed useful in Maine. The 
sawtimber-size class was divided into large and small 
sawtimber to provide more detail. The traditional 
minimum breakpoints for the sawtimber class of 9.0- 
and 1 1.0-inches in diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) for 
softwood and hardwood, respectively, were changed to a 
single 10-inch breakpoint for all species. Basal area per 
acre was used as the importance value for calculating the 
predominant size of sampled trees. The modified variable 
will be referred to as "stand-diameter class" to avoid 
confusion with the standard FIA stand-size class variable 
(see Appendix tables for information on FIA stand size). 

Stocking provides a measure of site occupancy that 
can be used in conjunction with other variables to 
analyze prospective management options and policy 
implications. Relative stocking is a term describing 
existing stocking in relation to stocking guidelines. 
It is calculated for individual species using existing 
equations in the literature. In many cases, research 
has been completed for the major "timber" species; 
however, some species still lack specific equations and 
are assigned to the most logical equation possible. To 
overcome this limitation, simplify the understanding of 
the term "stocking," and provide a measure more specific 
to Maine's habitat types; stocking was assigned using 



stocking charts from the FIBER model (Solomon and 
others 1995) that are referred to as stocking regions (see 
Definition of Terms). 

The new habitat type, stand-diameter class, and stocking 
approaches were used to reprocess the 1982, 1995, and 
2003 inventory data. This provides a consistent set of 
results for the three inventory dates. The detailed results 
of the reprocessing are shown in Tables 13-15. 

Generalized distribution surfaces for the habitat types 
are shown in Figure 29. These surfaces were derived 
from the FIA inventory data. Geostatistical techniques 
were used to provide continuous surfaces that represent 
the most probable distribution for a given type (see 
Appendix). The resulting "surface" represents habitat 
types and should not be confused with distribution maps 
for individual species described later in this report. The 
reason for including both products is to provide a more 
complete analysis of species occurrence in Maine. For 
example, spruce species are split between habitat types, 
but are combined in the species distribution map. The 
surfaces provide a graphic depiction for habitat types that 
often are scattered geographically. 

Beech/ red maple habitat is scattered across Maine with 
the highest confidence of occurrence in the southern 
portion of the State. Cedar/black spruce habitat also is 
dispersed; it is most common in wet areas. Hemlock/ 
red spruce is concentrated in a band across southern 
Maine. Oak/white pine habitat predominates in 
southwestern Maine and along the coast. Spruce/fir is 
heavily concentrated in the unorganized townships, the 
western mountains, and the eastern coastal region. Sugar 
maple/ash is common in all but southwestern Maine and 
Downeast. 

Changes in the distribution of forest land by habitat type 
for the last three inventories are shown in Figure 30. As 
would be expected, changes in the distribution are less 
drastic than changes in FIA forest-type groups. Spruce/fir 
is the most prevalent habitat, accounting for 42 percent 
of Maine's forest land. The impact of SBE and harvesting 
reduced spruce/fir by about 500,000 acres between the 
1982 and 1995 inventories. Restocking of spruce/fir 



23 



Table 13. — Area, of forest land by habitat type, stand-diameter class, and FIBER stocking region, Maine, 1982 



Stocking region 



Habitat type 


Stand-diameter class 


Low/no basal area 


Understocked 


Suboptimal 


Optimal 


Overstocked 


Total 




Low/no basal area 


129.5 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


129.5 




Sapling 


19.9 


76.6 


129.5 


162.7 


321.7 


710.4 


Beech/red maple 


Poletimber 


11.7 


230.0 


127.6 


498.8 


578.6 


1446.7 




Small sawtimber 


0.0 


106.6 


43.2 


89.2 


62.4 


301.4 




Large sawtimber 


0.0 


38.5 


12.2 


59.2 


32.9 


142.9 




Total 


161.1 


451.7 


312.5 


809.9 


995.7 


2730.8 






I fiw/nn has^il arpa 


257.1 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


257 1 




nl i n o - 


4.0 


63.6 


79 3 


20.3 


1 10.7 


277 7 




P nlpn m npr 


12.8 


258 3 


243 5 


275 6 


288.2 


1 078 4 




Small s^wfimnpr 


0.0 


36.0 


21.1 




1 8 7 

1 o. / 


161 1 

IU1.1 






yj . yj 


46 6 





1 R 9 
1 O.y 




65 5 

O J.J 




Total 


273.9 


404.5 


344.0 


400.0 


417.6 


1839.9 




I rvw/ nn na 1 a rpa 


151.6 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1516 




Sanl i ncr 


8 7 


9 5 


25 7 


25 7 


127.0 


1 96 5 


Hfm 1 nrk"/ rpn c.r> n i pp 

1 1 ^ 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 l\ ■ 1 \_ Li > L '1 Lll_L. 


Pnlpti m npr 


0.0 


1 15 3 

1 1 j'.J 


1 37 


341 ? 


376 1 


91 9 S 




S m c\ 1 a wT l m npr 

1 ltltl ja W L1111L/V.1 


0.0 


27 7 


21.8 


1 18.6 




1«1 9 




T srep ^wrimnpr 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


28.6 


26.1 


54 7 




Total 


160.2 


152.5 


184.5 


514.1 


579.0 


1590.3 




I cwjjI n pi n^Qa 1 a rpo 

J_iU W/ 11U LJ dOtxl Jl Lil 


8 3 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


8 3 




Sa n incr 
^ 1 1 1 1 g 


10 9 


32.0 


39 2 


22.2 


1 52 9 


257 2 


O^K/wnirp mnp 


1 olpfi m Kpr 


4 5 


81.6 


1 13.4 


231 5 


1 56 5 


587 5 




Sm a cawti m npr 

J 1 1 1 cl 11 od W L1111U^_1 


0.0 


43 9 


66.1 


77 8 


32 7 


220.4 




1—d.l t^C adrV L1111UC1 


o n 


70 4 


35 4 


79 8 


79 


1 64 6 




Total 


23.7 


177.8 


254.1 


411.2 


371.1 


1238.0 




J^UW/ 11U Udjdl died 


433 5 


n n 

\J.\J 


o n 





n n 

V/. \J 


433 5 




hno 


8 9 


1 17.0 


226.1 


71 9 


708.0 


1 131.8 


Snri i/^^/ri r 
JUl UtC/ ill 


I U1CL11 1 1 UCI 


31 f) 


088 6 


1 1 67 3 


148? 7 


1 787 1 

1AO / .1 


4956 7 




Ollld.lL 3d W Lllll UCI 


n n 


257 6 


1 74 2 


341 1 


141 8 


91 4 7 




Large sawtimber 


u.u 


/ D.J 


37 A 
5/. 4 


1 ^ 3 1 




97^ 1 




Total 


473.3 


1439.4 


1605.0 


2048.9 


2145.3 


7711.9 




Low/no basal area 


163.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


163.0 




Sapling 


0.0 


18.7 


42.8 


56.9 


173.8 


292.1 


Sugar maple/ash 


Poletimber 


10.4 


129.8 


153.5 


482.9 


356.9 


1133.5 




Small sawtimber 


0.0 


14.4 


95.9 


273.3 


167.7 


551.3 




Large sawtimber 


0.0 


18.9 


35.1 


191.3 


165.4 


410.8 




Total 


173.3 


181.7 


327.3 


1004.4 


863.8 


2550.6 




Low/no basal area 


1143.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1143.0 




Sapling 


52.2 


317.3 


542.6 


359.6 


1594.0 


2865.7 


Total 


Poletimber 


70.3 


1803.5 


1942.4 


3312.7 


2993.4 


10122.3 




Small sawtimber 


0.0 


486.1 


422.3 


985.3 


523.1 


2416.8 




Large sawtimber 


0.0 


200.7 


120.1 


530.9 


261.9 


1113.6 




Total 


1265.6 


2807.6 


3027.3 


5188.4 


5372.5 


17661.4 



24 



Table 14. — Area of forest land by habitat type, stand-diameter class, and FIBER stocking region, Maine, 1995 



Stocking region 



Habitat type 


Stand-diameter class 


Low/no basal area 


Understocked 


Suboptimal 


Optimal 


Overstocked 


Total 




Low/No Basal Area 


79.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


79.2 




Sapling 


35.7 


159.1 


242.4 


95.6 


358.7 


891.6 


Beech/red maple 


Poletimber 


26.5 


282.7 


255.0 


420.8 


540.9 


1525.9 




Small sawtimber 


0.0 


81.5 


64.0 


171.0 


179.6 


496.2 




Large sawtimber 


0.0 


63.7 


38.6 


72.1 


101.4 


275.7 




lotal 


141 S 

1 .7 


S87 
JO / .u 


^00 n 


IJJ-J 


1 1 ou.u 


37(^8 ^ 




Low/no basal area 


51.6 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


51.6 




oapling 


<1 3 
01.3 


88 ^ 
OOJ 


1 AA 1 

1 UU. i 


10 1 
1 0. 1 


1 < 1 /; 
lol .0 


/ 70 /C 

4zy.o 


Cedar/black spruce 


Poletimber 


77 Q 
ZZ.O 


1 £7 o 
lOZ.V 


7<>7 A 
Z7Z.4 


777 7 
ZZ/ .Z 


310. 1 


08 1 3 

>o 1 .3 




Small sawtimber 


a a 
u.u 


">8 1 
70. 1 


kc\ 7 
ou./ 


134.V 


I 1 A 7 

I I u.z 


303. y 




Large sawtimber 


A A 

U.U 


l/.Z 


A A 

U.U 


107 
iy./ 


7^2 
Z7.3 


/C7 1 

oZ. 1 




Total 


1 3^ 8 
137. 


37^ ^ 

3ZO.O 


A\ \ 7 
4 1 3.Z 


3QQ 8 


013.1 


1 888 ^ 
iooo.7 




Low/no basal area 


34.3 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


34.3 




Sapling 


Z7.0 


4Z.0 


<o 7 


A A 
U.U 


8< 1 
OD. 1 


77/ A 
ZZ4.U 


Hemlock/ red spruce 


Poletimber 


i z.o 


Q£ A 

yO.u 


173^ 
1 / 5.0 


1 ^7 8 
17/. O 


171 1 
1/1.1 


1 7 
O 1 1 .Z 




Small sawtimber 


u.u 


f^A 3 


A£ 3 
00. J 


1 37 S 
1 3Z.7 


8A 1 


343 7 
343. z 




Large sawtimber 


a a 
U.U 


O.O 


1 / 
1.4 


/ 8 1 
4o. 1 


/A ^ 
4U.3 


OK £ 
JO.O 




Total 


/ z.o 


Z.KJJ.J 


Jl l.U 


338 4 


381 8 


1 300 3 
1 30 j.j 




Low/no basal area 


15.1 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


15.1 




oapling 


n a 
U.U 


A A 

U.U 


70. Z 


/ 8 A 

4o.U 


17 1 7 

iz 1 .z 


Tic /, 


Oak/white pine 


Poletimber 


a a 
U.U 


^3 2 
J J.J 


70.0 


77^ A 
ZZ7.D 


1 ^ 8 
1 30.0 


407 ^ 
4VZ.7 




Small sawtimber 


a a 
U.U 


30 7 

J J.I 


77 X 

LI .0 


1 A X A 
143. U 


Af\ 
4U.O 


7^A ^ 
Z7U.7 




Large sawtimber 


a a 
U.U 


Ax /C 
43.0 


Cf\ 8 

OU.o 


1 ^7 7 
OZ./ 


73. J 


XZ. X A 
333. U 




Total 


1 S 1 
15.1 


1 X£ 
130.0 


7A1 A 
ZU 1 .U 


S£Q 7 
70y.Z 


t 14.U 


1 33A S 
1330.7 




Low/no basal area 


166.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


166.2 




Sapling 


i An o 
14/ .Z 


/^2 H 


^AO 7 


1 1 A 7 

1 1U./ 


1 1 30. z 


7 278 / 

Z3/o.4 


Spruce/ hr 


Poletimber 


30 £ 

3V.0 


740.7 


(^87 X 
OO/. 3 


8A/^ 1 
QUO. 1 


1 1 ^3 O 
1 1 73. J 


2722 2 
3Z33.3 




omall sawtimber 




7 i 2 ^ 
Z13.7 


7A8 O 

zuo.y 


37/1 7 
3/4./ 


7/^ 1 7 
ZO 1 .Z 


1 U04. 1 




Large sawtimber 


A A 
U.U 


1 ") A 2 

1ZU.3 


f f f 
OO.O 


^/C A 

70. u 


1 

^3.1 


220 1 
330. 1 




lotal 


358.9 


i 2 2 2 n 

1333.9 


1471.5 


1 2 /I ~1 c 

1347.5 


Z668.3 


"7 1 OA "> 

7180. z 




Low/no basal area 


26.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


26.2 




Sapling 


/.o 




2/C 7 
JO./ 


7A 1 

/u. 1 


1 8/ ^ 
lo4.7 


337.1 


Sugar maple/ash 


Poletimber 


17.0 


70 8 

/y.o 


7 

1Z3./ 


/I 1 O 7 
41V.Z 


XQZ. A 

307. u 


1 A7 2 7 
1UZ3.Z 




omall sawtimber 


0.0 


7< /C 

ZO.O 


53.0 


7/^2 C 
Z03.7 


410.4 


If 8 O 




Large sawtimber 


A A 

U.U 


13.Z 


IZ.o 


lol.o 


X £ £ 7 
377. z 


Z.CX A 
703.U 





Total 


jo.v 


i-JJ.J 


77£ Q 
LZ.O.J 


Q3zL A 
^3^1. 


1 343 1 
1 3^13. 1 


771 ^ S 
LI 1 0.7 




Low/ no basal area 


372.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


372.7 




Sapling 


277.5 


780.1 


1013.8 


342.5 


2070.3 


4484.2 


Total 


Poletimber 


117.1 


1221.1 


1548.8 


2256.7 


2723.7 


7867.4 




Small sawtimber 


12.5 


479.6 


481.0 


1219.5 


1094.2 


3286.8 




Large sawtimber 


0.0 


264.6 


180.1 


530.3 


713.4 


1688.4 




Total 


779.8 


2745.5 


3223.7 


4349.0 


6601.5 


17699.5 



25 



Table 15. — Area of forest land by habitat type, stand-diameter class, and FIBER stocking region, Maine, 2003 



Stocking region 



Habitat type 


Stand-diameter class 


Low/no basal area 


Understocked 


Suboptimal 


Optimal 


Overstocked 


Total 




Low/No Basal Area 


113.7 


1.6 


0.2 


0.9 


0.8 


117.1 




Sapling 


24.4 


120.2 


146.9 


183.7 


279.7 


754.8 


Beech/red maple 


Poletimber 


5.8 


293.4 


202.2 


597.2 


124.7 


1223.3 




Small Sawtimber 


0.0 


65.0 


74.9 


164.2 


95.3 


399.4 




Large Sawtimber 


0.0 


25.9 


16.2 


81.7 


33.7 


157.5 




Total 


143.9 


506.1 


440.4 


1027.6 


534.2 


2652.1 




Low/no basal area 


217.5 


0.0 


0.5 


0.0 


0.0 


218.0 




Sapling 


12.3 


98.6 


94.0 


19.2 


72.4 


296.5 


Cedar/black spruce 


Poletimber 


11.5 


168.7 


300.7 


238.9 


171.8 


891.6 




Small sawtimber 


0.0 


39.4 


31.7 


85.3 


86.6 


242.9 




Large sawtimber 


0.0 


7.0 


6.0 


38.8 


23.5 


75.3 




Total 


241.3 


313.7 


432.9 


382.2 


354.3 


1724.3 






Low/no basal area 


26.8 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


26.8 




Sapling 


12.4 


46.5 


36.2 


23.4 


110.2 


228.7 


Hemlock/ red spruce 


Poletimber 


0.0 


207.0 


183.6 


205.6 


74.2 


670.3 




Small sawtimber 


0.0 


116.6 


132.2 


239.8 


51.0 


539.5 




Large sawtimber 


0.0 


19.5 


37.5 


114.9 


29.9 


201.8 




Total 


39.2 


389.6 


389.4 


583.5 


265.3 


1667.0 




Low/no basal area 


12.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.3 


0.0 


13.0 




Sapling 


4.4 


30.0 


44.1 


43.8 


37.1 


159.5 


Oak/white pine 


Poletimber 


0.0 


148.9 


142.1 


258.9 


70.2 


620.0 




Small sawtimber 


0.0 


83.6 


69.3 


157.1 


44.1 


354.0 




Large sawtimber 


0.0 


61.5 


82.0 


168.9 


33.6 


346.0 




Total 


17.1 


324.0 


337.4 


629.0 


184.9 


1492.4 




Low/ no basal area 


351.1 


1.4 


0.8 


2.4 


1.3 


356.9 




Sapling 


24.4 


405.0 


681.0 


261.8 


1164.7 


2536.9 


Spruce/fir 


Poletimber 


22.3 


817.2 


953.1 


924.0 


377.5 


3094.0 




Small sawtimber 


0.0 


215.6 


335.2 


492.5 


142.4 


1185.6 




Large sawtimber 


0.0 


74.6 


53.7 


156.0 


65.5 


349.8 




Total 


397.7 


1513.8 


2023.9 


1836.6 


1751.3 


7523.2 




Low/no basal area 


42.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


42.2 




Sapling 


21.5 


64.4 


79.9 


69.1 


90.1 


324.9 


Sugar maple/ash 


Poletimber 


12.7 


134.6 


114.8 


544.0 


106.5 


912.6 




Small sawtimber 


0.0 


54.5 


163.2 


503.8 


157.0 


878.4 




Large sawtimber 


0.0 


25.7 


44.1 


284.0 


146.7 


500.5 




Total 


76.4 


279.1 


401.9 


1400.9 


500.2 


2658.6 




Low/no basal area 


763.9 


2.9 


1.5 


3.6 


2.0 


773.9 




Sapling 


99.3 


764.8 


1082.1 


600.9 


1754.1 


4301.2 


Total 


Poletimber 


52.3 


1769.8 


1896.4 


2768.5 


924.8 


7411.8 




Small sawtimber 


0.0 


574.6 


806.4 


1642.5 


576.3 


3599.8 




Large sawtimber 


0.0 


214.2 


239.5 


844.2 


333.0 


1630.9 




Total 


915.6 


3326.3 


4025.8 


5859.8 


3590.1 


17717.6 



26 



Beech/Red Maple Cedar/Black Spruce Hemlock/Red Spruce 




Oak/White Pine Spruce/Fir Sugar Maple/Ash 




Figure 29.— Distribution of forest land by habitat type, Maine, 2003. 



9000 , 



8000 - 




Beech/Red Cedar/Black Hemlock/Red Oak/White Spruce/Fir Sugar 
Maple Spruce Spruce Pine Maple/Ash 



Figure 30. — Area of forest land by habitat type and inventory date, 
Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 




acreage is reflected in the subsequent increase of 342,900 
acres between 1995 and 2003. Other habitat types 
containing spruce and fir also experienced decreases. The 
oak/ white pine habitat type increased steadily and now 
totals 1, 492,400 acres. The beech/ red maple increased 
dramatically between 1982 and 1995 but has decreased 
since then. This change occurred as young red maple 
flourished due to the opening up of stands to sunlight, 



but was subsequently classified as spruce/fir and other 
types as these species outcompeted red maple for space 
and sunlight. The sugar maple/ash habitat type remained 
stable over the period and now totals 2,658,600 acres. 

The distribution surfaces for stand-diameter classes 
are shown in Figure 3 1 . Todays sapling stands are 
concentrated heavily in the unorganized regions and 



28 



12000 



Downeast. Poletimber stands are found 
across Maine, but are most abundant 
in the southern half of the State. Small 
and large sawtimber also are dispersed 
widely, though large sawtimber stands 
are relatively uncommon. 

Changes in the distribution of forest 
land by stand-diameter class reflect 
increases in sapling-size acreage as 
poletimber stands were decreasing 
due primarily to disturbance effects 
(Fig. 32). Sapling stands increased by 
1,435,500 acres between 1982 and 
2003. There was a corresponding 
decrease in poletimber of 2,710,500 
acres. Poletimber stands containing 
significant stocking of balsam fir 
often were impacted by SBE and 
related salvage harvesting. Not 
all of the poletimber stands were 
converted to younger sapling stands 
as some poletimber stands grew to 
small-sawtimber size. The current 
distribution of forest land by stand- 
diameter class is 24 percent sapling, 
42 percent poletimber, 20 percent 
small sawtimber, and 9 percent large 
sawtimber. 



10000 



8000 



6000 



4000 



2000 



Low/No Basal 
Area 




Sapling 



Large 
Sawtimber 



Figure 32. — Area of forest land by stand-diameter class and inventory date, 
Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



6000 



5000 



4000 



3000 



2000 



1000 



Isolating the changes in the spruce/fir 
habitat type clarifies the major role of 
this habitat in the structural changes 
that have occurred across Maine's 
forested landscape (Fig. 33). As would be expected, 
the characteristic decline in poletimber and increase 
in sapling acreage is more dramatic for spruce/fir and 
the megaregions covering the unorganized regions 
(Fig. 34). The Southern region had an increase in 
poletimber and both small- and large-sawtimber classes 




□ 1982 

■ 1995 

■ 2003 



Low/No Basal 
Area 



Large 
Sawtimber 



Figure 33. — Area of spruce/fir forest land by stand-diameter class and inventory 
date, Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



The most dramatic examples of the dominant trend is 
apparent on forest industry forest land located mostly 
in the unorganized regions (Fig. 35). Nonindustrial 
private acreage has seen an increase in poletimber, small 
sawtimber, and large sawtimber since the 1995 inventory. 



29 



Eastern 



Southern 




Low/no basal Sapling 



Poletimber Small Large 

Sawtimber Sawtimber 



Northern 



Low/no basal 
area 





Low/no basal Sapling 



Poletimber Small Large 

Sawtimber Sawtimber 



Western 




Sapling 



Small Large 
Sawtimber Sawtimber 



Low/no basal 
area 



Sapling 



Small Large 
Sawtimber Sawtimber 



Figure 34. — Area of spruce/fir forest land by stand-diameter class, megaregion, and inventory date, 
Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



Public 



Industry 




Jia 



Low/no basal Sapling 



Poletimber Small Large 

Sawtimber Sawtimber 



Low/no basal Sapling Poletimber Small Large 

area Sawtimber Sawtimber 



NIPF 




Lowno basal Sapling Poletimber Small Large 

area Sawtimber Sawtimber 



Figure 35. — Area of spruce/fir forest 
land by stand-diameter class, owner 
group, and inventory date, Maine, 
1982, 1995, 2003. 



30 



Trends for the oak/white pine habitat type 
differ from those for spruce/fir (Fig. 36). 
Oak/white pine has had steady decreases 
in sapling acreage and increases in the 
larger stand-diameter classes. This foretells 
an aging resource with little recruitment 
into younger age classes. 

The findings for changes in the 
distribution of forest land by stocking 
level indicate encouraging trends and 
general improvements (Fig. 37). Although 
the understocked and suboptimal class 
had increases, improvements were 
more dramatic in the other classes. The 
acreage in the optimal stocking region 
decreased by 839,400 acres between 
1982 and 1995, but then increased by 
1,510,800 acres since 1995 — a net gain 
of 671,400 acres. Another positive trend 
was the decrease of 3,01 1,400 acres in 
overstocked forest land. This decrease 
followed an increase between 1982 
and 1995. As with other changes in 
composition and structure, the spruce/fir 
habitat type has driven trends at the state 
level (Fig. 38). 

Stand Structure 

The distribution of forest land by stand- 
structure class helps explain the current 
mix of conditions across Maine (Table 
16). This information is useful for 
crafting management strategies for the 
various habitat types in the State. Each 
forested condition that is encountered is 
assigned to one of the following: single 
story, two story, multistory, or mosaic, 
e.g., a condition that is characterized by 
two distinct canopy layers is assigned to 
the two-story class. A common example 



700 




Low/No Basal Sapling Polef mber Small Large 

Area Sawtimber Sawtimber 



Figure 36. — Area of oak/white pine forest land by stand-diameter class and 
inventory date, Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



7000 i 



6000 




Low/No Basal Understocked Sub-Optimal Optimal Overstocked 
Area 



Figure 37. — Area of forest land by FIBER stocking region and inventory date, 
Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



3000 -, 




Low/No Basal Undeistocked Sub-Optimal Optimal Overstocked 
Area 

Figure 38. — Area of spruce/fir forest land by FIBER stocking region and 
inventory date, Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



31 



Table 16. — Area of forest land by habitat type and stand structure class, Maine, 2003 



Stand-structure class 



Habitat type 



Single-story Two-story 



Multistory 



Mosaic 



Total 



Beech/red maple 
Cedar/black spruce 
Hemlock/ red spruce 
Oak/white pine 
Spruce/fir 
Sugar maple/ash 
Total 



1127.7 

947.4 

646.5 

619.8 

3435.6 

1111.8 



1227.3 
572.3 
761.1 
685.8 
2971.5 
1304.5 



• Thousands ofacres- 
210.8 
126.6 
177.8 
155.3 
795.7 
237.8 



80.5 
72.2 
81.6 
31.5 
320.5 
4.4 



2646.3 
1718.5 
1666.9 
1492.5 
7523.2 
2658.6 



7888.7 



7522.5 



1704.0 



590.8 



17717.5 



Note: Excludes nonstocked acreage; data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



would be a mature overstory with an understory of 
sapling-size trees. The management options for this 
condition differ from those for the single-story condition. 
Currently, the bulk of Maine's forest land is single story 
(45 percent) or two story (42 percent). 

Low Basal-Area Conditions 

Since the 1995 inventory, there have been two statewide 
referenda and other proposed legislation concerning 
forest-management practices. These initiatives have 
focused on the frequency and size of clearcutting, the 
need to balance periodic growth and harvests, and the 
impact of liquidation harvesting. The continuing interest in 
policy development related to practices that create stands 
with low basal area provides the basis for the analysis that 
follows. 

Each sample condition was assigned to one of seven 
classes based on basal area per acre of all tallied live trees 
1 inch or larger in d.b.h. The lowest basal-area class 
represents stocking of to 49 square feet per acre. This 
class comprises more than 3 million acres of timberland 
(17 percent of total), a substantial increase of 450,000 
acres since 1995. Current status of the low basal-area 
class is examined by ownership, megaregion, and stand- 
diameter class. 



For the most part, these acres have potential; 47 percent 
of all acres in this basal-area class are in the sapling- 
seedling stand-diameter class (Table 17). Appropriate 
silvicultural practices are needed to enhance the growth of 
this acreage. 

Statewide, forest industry owns 36 percent of these 
low basal-area acres; 54 percent are in the sapling class 
(Table 1 7) . Proper management of this acreage and its 
composition through practices such as precommercial 
thinning and the prompt return of this land to 
merchantable size will enhance the productivity of 
Maine's forests. 

Another concern is combination of low/no basal-area and 
sawtimber stand-diameter classes that are currently classed 
as low/no basal area or understocked. This grouping 
accounts for only 10 percent of the acres in lowest basal- 
area class. However, 58 percent of the 320,000 acres are 
held by nonindustrial private landowners (Table 17). 

The northern region accounts for 56 percent of the acres 
in the low basal-area class (Table 18). The share of low/no 
basal-area acreage in the southern and western regions, at 
82 and 8 1 percent, respectively, is troubling because most 
of these acres are in poletimber-size stands for which there 
are fewer management opportunities. 



32 



Table 17. — Percentage of timberland acres in the to 49 ft 2 basal-area class, by ownership, stand- 
diameter, and FIBER stocking classes, Maine, 2003 



Ownership class 







I UJLCol 


IN (Jill 1 1UU.CS LI ld.1 




Stand-diameter and stocking classes 


Public 


industry 


private 


Subtotal 


T rv\x/7 Mo YKi co 1 - A rpa \tcx n rl c 










T nw/nn na^al arpa ann iinnprsrnrKPn 


o 


4 


4 


8 


Suboptimal stocking 














(jntimal stnrlf 1 ntr a nn nvprsrorKPn 


o 


o 


o 


o 


Subtotal 





4 


4 


9 


Owner Class Share 


4 


44 


52 


100 


> 'll.'l 1 Ili^ v 1 I . 1 1 1 LI O 










T / 1 1 „ J 1 . 1 ,1 

Low/ no basal area and understocked 


A 
U 


1 A 
1U 


lo 


~>/^ 
zo 


Suboptimal stocking 


1 
1 



O 


Q 

J 


1 7 


Optimal stocking and overstocked 


A 
(J 


1 


3 


4 


Subtotal 


1 
I 


lo 


Z/ 


/<7 

4/ 


Uwner Class bnare 


*y 


4U 


C A 

9V 


1 AA 

1U(J 


Poletimber Stands 










Low/ no basal area and understocked 


1 
1 


1 A 
1U 


19 


3U 


Suboptimal stocking 


U 


9 
z 


9 
z 


4 


Optimal stocking and overstocked 


a 
U 


A 
U 


n 
U 


A 
U 


oUDtotai 


i 
1 


1 1 
1 1 


zz 


99 


Owner Class Share 


9 
z 




D4 


i nn 

1 uu 


omall oawtimber stands 










LUW/ I1U UdidI died. .11 IU UIlU.ClhLOLK.CU. 


u 


z 


<; 


7 

/ 


Nnnnnti m -a 1 ct"0("lri n cr 

OU.UUlJl.llll.dl olUClvlllfcL 


n 







1 

1 


( lnrimo ctnrl/in(T onH r^/^rclr^f Lrf^H 

VJIJLIllldl j ItJClVlilti dllU CJVCloHJClVCLl 







o 

u 


n 


Subtotal 


o 


2 


6 


8 


C Jwnprshin Sharp 

V_y VV IIV.L0IIILJ ^ MlilK 


3 


24 


/ ^ 


100 


Large Sawtimber Stands 










I ow/nn naca arpo onn iinnpKtnrKPn 


n 


1 


1 


2 


Si i nonti ma. 1 ^torW 1 n & 


o 


o 


o 


o 


Optimal stocking and overstocked 














Subtotal 





1 


1 


2 


Ownership Share 





34 


66 


100 


Ownership share of to 49 ft 2 basal-area class 


2 


36 


61 


100 


Proportionate ownership share of 17.2 million 










timberland acres 


4 


32 


64 


100 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



Table 18. — Timberland acres in the to 49 ft 2 basal area class, by region, stand-diameter, and FIBER stocking 
classes, Maine, 2003 







Re^ 


;ion 






OtailCl-Uiaillcter ailCl SlOCKlIlg LiaSS 


JLL-elbLCl 11 


INOl L11CI 11 


juuincrn 


Western 


OUDtOLdi 


Low/No Basal-Area Stands 












Low/no basal area and understocked 




131,104 


i c /ni 

15,491 


25,533 


TCI O C 1 

251,852 


Suboptimal stocking 




i cr r\ / 

1,504 






1,504 


r~\ - 1 . 1 • J 1 J 

Optimal stocking and overstocked 


1,871 


2,990 


284 


/OA 

439 


Cf CO/ 

5,584 


Subtotal 


o i die 

81,535 


1 O C /CO 

135,658 


15,775 


25,972 


ICO A / A 

258,940 


O 1 * C A 

Sapling Stands 












T / L 1 J J 1 J 

Low/no basal area and understocked 


TIC A 1 "7 

215,92/ 


/ "~7 C T AO 

475,308 


59,239 


/ i cr Ai 

41,562 


"7 A 1 A 1 / 

792,036 


c u -• 1 - 1 ■ 
Suboptimal stocking 


on i i o 

89,318 


O 1 O 

367,318 


ir 1/1 

25,242 


19,666 


cr a i c / / 

501,544 


Optimal stocking and overstocked 


29,261 


/'n / a i 


"7 A Ol 

7,483 


n to i 

9,732 


1 1 C O "7 "7 

1 15,877 


Subtotal 


334,506 


A 1 i A 1 "7 

912,027 


91,964 


"7 A A /" A 

70,960 


1 / A A / cr T 

1,409,457 


roletimber stands 












T / L 1 J J 1 J 

Low/ no basal area and understocked 


265,749 


417,571 


120,774 


98,786 


a a i nnn 

902,880 


Suboptimal stocking 


28,666 


73,417 


1 / A CT A 

14,950 


12,017 


1 1 A A C A 

129,050 


Optimal stocking and overstocked 


no/ 

996 


8,225 


2,312 




ii cr o o 

1 1,533 


subtotal 


/ 1 1 

295,41 1 


/ aa 11 9 

499,213 


1 O O AO/" 

138,036 


1 1 A O A O 

1 10,803 


1 A / O / /" O 

1,043,463 


Small Sawtimber Stands 












T / U 1 J J 1 J 

Low/ no basal area and understocked 


/"l i o o 

62,138 


c\ A. o aa 

94,300 


-) i A O O 

31,033 


OA /" 1 /*" 

30,616 


1 1 O A O "7 

218,087 


buboptimal stocking 


a mo 

9,978 


o 1 / O 

8,248 




4,384 


22,610 


Optimal stocking and overstocked 






"7 O 1 

732 




732 


Subtotal 


"7^ 1 1 / 

72,1 16 


1 A O C / O 

102,548 


31,765 


ir AAA 

35,000 


1/1 / 1 A 

241,429 


Large Sawtimber Stands 












T /LI J J 1 J 

Low/no basal area and understocked 


1 1 /*" 1 O 

21,623 


29,639 


1 1 A 1 

3,291 


cr oat 

5,897 


/" A / C A 

60,450 


Suboptimal stocking 




5,614 






5,614 


Optimal stocking and overstocked 












Subtotal 


21,623 


35,253 


3,291 


5,897 


66,064 


Subtotal low/no basal area and understocked 


645,101 


1,147,982 


229,828 


202,394 


2,225,305 


Subtotal suboptimal 


127,962 


456,101 


40,192 


36,067 


660,322 


Subtotal optimal and overstocked 


32,128 


80,616 


10,811 


10,171 


133,726 


Regional totals of to 49 ft 2 basal-area class 


805,191 


1,684,698 


280,831 


248,634 


3,019,354 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



34 



500000 



300000 



200000 



Harvest Disturbance eooooo 

The MFS has conducted censuses of 
harvest activity in Maine since 1982 (the 
period from 1982 to 1986 is a single 400000 
average). Harvest trends of the 1980s and 
1990s clearly reflect increased cutting (in 
acres) over the period (Figs. 39-40). The 
average annual harvest from 1982 to 1989 
totaled 286,600 acres compared to 449,200 100000 
acres from 1990 to 1994. Since then, 
the average acreage harvested increased 
to 531,000 acres. Trends also indicate a 
dramatic shift from clearcutting to partial 
cutting, e.g., partial and shelterwood, 
beginning in the early 1990s. Partial 
cutting now dominates harvesting in 
Maine. Other MFS data indicate that 
natural extensive management practices 
dominate Maine's forestry practices. 
Statewide, planting, precommercial 
thinning, and conifer release occur only on 
about 5 percent of the timberland. 

FIA data allow one to evaluate the degree 
to which forest land in Maine has been 
impacted by harvesting. The distribution 
of timberland by cutting intensity reflects 
the current character of timberland. 
Cutting intensity is defined as the basal 
area of cut trees divided by total basal area 
prior to harvest expressed as a percentage. 
The results reflect harvest activity over 
the recent inventory period, from 1995 
to 2003. The acreage of timberland with 
no trees removed was 84 percent. This 
estimate is based on the limited remeasurement 
sample of the first 5 years of annual inventory. 
The estimate compares to a MFS estimate of 75 
percent from 1995 to 2002 (MFS 1986 to 2003). 
As additional remeasurement data emerges, detailed 
analyses of harvesting (by diameter and species) can 
be completed. 



D 



s Land-Use Change 

□ All Other 

□ Clearcut 

□ Partial 

□ Shelterwood 



1982- 
1986 



1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 



Year 



Figure 39. — Silvicultural trends, acres harvested by harvest type, 
(MFS 1986-2003). 



laine, 2003 



100 



80 



60 



40 



20 



III 



□ Land-Use Change 

□ All Other 

□ Clearcut 

□ Partial 

□ Shelterwood 



1982- 
1986 



1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 



Year 



Figure 40. — Percentage distribution of harvest type, Maine, 2003 
(MFS 1986-2003). 



35 



Numbers of Trees 

The forest land of Maine is frequently referred to 
as the "Acadian Forest" because of its unique 
location between Boreal Forests to the north and 
Central Hardwood Forests to the south. This 
transition zone provides a rich mixture of 
commercial species. This diversity is reflected in 
the variety of tree species tallied — 14 commercial 
softwood species, 32 commercial hardwood 
species, and 16 noncommercial hardwood 
species. Tree-species diversity is shown in Figure 
41. Each pixel is highlighted according to 
modeled numbers of species tallied. 



Balsam fir represents 35 percent of all live trees 
that are larger than 1.0 inch d.b.h., followed 
by red maple (12 percent), red spruce (9), 
noncommercial hardwoods (8), and paper birch (6). The 
high proportion of pioneer species reflects the sapling share 
of forest land (24 percent). 

Shifting focus to abundance only on the timberland base and 
merchantable-size trees (at least 5.0 inches d.b.h.), balsam fir 
remains the most abundant species with a 15-percent share, 
followed by red maple (13), red spruce (13), northern white- 
cedar (10), and paper birch (6). 

Maine's softwood resource has a higher proportion of 
sawlog quality trees than the hardwood resource (Fig. 42). 
Sawtimber-size trees (at least 9 and 1 1 inches for softwoods 
and hardwoods, respectively) represent 27 percent of all 
softwood stems. The bulk of softwoods is classified as 
growing-stock trees; 67 percent of live trees at least 5.0 inches 
d.b.h. are of acceptable sawlog quality but these trees do 
not meet the minimum size (9 inches d.b.h.). Poor-quality 
softwoods include rough (poor form) trees (4 percent) and 
rotten (excessive defect) trees (2 percent). 




Courtesy of Maine Forest Service 




Overstory Tree 
Species Richness 

□ 6- 



Figure 41 . — Average number of tree species tallied 
on FIA sample plots, Maine, 2003. 



36 



80 

70 

60 

50 

| 40 -I 
a> 
a. 

30 - 
20 - 
10 - 




67 



27 



Softwood 



73 



14 



10 



Hardwood 



■ Rotten Trees 

□ Rough Trees, 
Pulpwood Quality 

■ Potential Sawlog 
Quality Trees 

□ Sawlog Quality 
Trees 



Figure 42. — Distribution of live merchantable size trees (> 5.0 inches d.b.h.) by tree 
class, Maine, 2003. 



Sawtimber-size hardwood trees represent 14 percent 
of live hardwoods. Most of the live merchantable- 
size hardwoods are growing-stock trees, 73 percent of 
which are of acceptable sawlog quality but too small for 
sawtimber. Poor-quality hardwood trees include rough 
trees (10 percent) and rotten trees (3 percent). 

Over the last 45 years, the periodic inventory of Maine's 
forest resources has provided an interesting perspective 
of stand development and dynamics in reaction to 
natural and forest-management interventions (Fig. 43). 
The per-acre average for timberland in 1959 was 813 
sapling-size, 144 poletimber-size, and 15 sawtimber-size 
trees. The 1971 periodic inventory revealed rapid stand 
development across the State during this interval. On 
the average acre, saplings decreased to 617, poletimber 
trees increased moderately to 179, and sawtimber trees 
increased substantially to 43. Over the next decade 
or so, stand dynamics were in apparent 
equilibrium. The 1982 inventory estimated 
continuing minor decreases in saplings (589) 
and poletimber (174), and a continuing 
minor maturation to sawtimber trees (46). 
Concurrent with part of this period is the 
SBE and the beginning of salvage harvesting. 



Both of these impacts are apparent in the 
inventory period of 1982 to 1995. The 
1995 inventory showed a major shift in 
the distribution of trees by size. The trees 



1,300 
1,200 
1,100 
1,000 
900 
800 
700 
600 
500 
400 
300 



Figure 43. 
size class 



present on the average acre increased to 785 saplings; 
poletimber had a major decrease to 135 trees that was 
attributed to both SBE-induced mortality of small 
suppressed/intermediate trees and salvage harvests; 
sawtimber had a minor decrease to 42 trees. 

The 2003 estimate continues to reflect the rapid 
development of young saplings, currently representing 
1,051 trees per acre of timberland, along with 
continued minor decreases in the number of poletimber 
and sawtimber trees at 131 and 41, respectively. 

Since one-quarter of Maine's timberland is classed as 
sapling stand-diameter class, these submerchantable 
trees warrant closer examination to understand the 
future prospects of Maine's forest resources. Between 
1995 and 2003, there was a 52-percent increase 



■ Sawtimber 

□ Poletimber 

□ Saplings 



1959 



1971 



1982 



1995 



2003 



— Distribution of live trees per acre of timberland by tree- 
, Maine, 1959, 1971, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



37 





468 










401 










583 






384 













□ Hardwood 

□ Softwood 



1995 



2003 



Figure 44. — Distribution of saplings 
per acre of timberland by species 
group, Maine, 1995 and 2003. 



700 
600 
500 
400 
300 
200 
100 




1" 
dbh 



2" 
dbh 



3" dbh 
class 



□ Hardwood 

□ Softwood 



4" dbh 
class 



1995 2003 1995 2003 1995 2003 1995 2003 



Figure 45. — Change in live saplings 
per acre by diameter class and 
species group, Maine, 1995 and 2003. 




Figure 46. — Estimated number of saplings per 
acre, Maine, 2003. 



in softwood saplings, while hardwood saplings have 
increased only by 17 percent (Fig. 44). Further, the 
increases follow a reverse J-shaped distribution, with the 
bulk of the increase occurring in the 1-inch d.b.h. class 
and dropping rapidly off to the 4-inch d.b.h. class (Fig. 
45). From a statistical standpoint, all of these sapling 
increases within each d.b.h. class represent a significant 
change since the 1995 estimate. 

The spatial distribution of the expected increase in 
saplings is important to certain forest product-industries 
and reflects progressive stand development following 
extensive harvest over the last 25 years (Figs. 46-47). 
Examining the distribution of larger to smaller diameter 
classes provides a general representation of where 
and when waves of spruce and fir forest will attain 
merchantable size. There are three areas with relatively 
high concentrations of 4-inch saplings: northern 



38 




Figure 47. — Estimated number of saplings per acre by 1-inch diameter classes, Maine, 2003. 



Piscataquis County, a localized area in the southern 
part of the Aroostook Lowlands, and a band along the 
Eastern Coastal region. The concentration of 3-inch 
saplings is highest in a band encompassing portions 
of the biophysical regions of the Western Foothills, 
Central Mountains, Aroostook Hills, and the Aroostook 
Lowlands. Concentrations of 2- and 1-inch trees are 
highest in the Downeast and Aroostook Hills regions. 

Standing Dead Trees 

Unutilized dead trees represent a loss in the productivity 
of the land for forest products; however, dead trees 
contribute to a forest's biodiversity by providing den sites 
for cavity-nesting birds and as the future source of down 



woody material. Both the frequency and size of dead trees 
are important characteristics in determining these and 
other nontimber attributes. 

Salvable dead trees are defined as at least 5.0 inches 
d.b.h., have died recently, and still retain an intact bark 
structure. The numbers of these trees has remained fairly 
constant since 1982. Current estimates of nonsalvable 
dead trees show a substantial decrease since 1995, 
especially in softwoods and particularly balsam fir and 
red spruce. This is an indication that nonsalvable dead 
trees tallied in 1995 no longer are standing and probably 
are part of the current estimates of down woody material 
(Tables A17, Bll, andCll). 



39 



Standing dead trees are further characterized by diameter 
class (5.0 to 10.9 inches d.b.h., 1 1.0 to 14.9 inches, 
and 15 inches and larger) and by tree-condition class 
(intact top or broken top). Dead trees in the largest 
class are of primary interest because of their expected 
longevity within the existing stand structure. The current 
distribution for this size class is 18.1 million trees, an 
average of 1 . 1 per acre of timberland. Trees in this class 
in 1995 averaged 0.9 per acre of timberland. 

Down Woody Material 

Down woody material (DWM) is defined as dead 
material on the ground in various stages of decay. DWM 
is an important component of forest ecosystems because 
it affects the: quality and structure of wildlife habitats, 
structural diversity, fuel loading and fire behavior, 
carbon sequestration, and the storage and cycling of 
water (USDA For. Serv. 2002b). Components measured 
include coarse woody debris (CWD), fine woody debris 
(FWD), duff, litter, herbs/shrubs, and fuelbed depth. 
CWD is dead wood 3 inches or larger in diameter 
(1,000-hour fuels); FWD is dead wood 0.1 to 2.9 inches 
in diameter (1-, 10-, and 100-hour fuels). Litter is 
defined as the loose plant material on top of the forest 
floor where little decomposition has occurred. Duff is the 
layer just below the litter and consists of decomposing 
leaves and other organic material. CWD and FWD are 
sampled using line-intersect sampling methodologies. 
DWM sample transects begin at each subplot center 
extending 24 feet to the subplot border. CWD and 
FWD are sampled only along transects in accessible 
forest land. 

It should be noted that the analysis and interpretation of 
Maine's DWM data is based on only 2 years of data 
(2001 and 2002). As additional data are available and as 
analysis techniques are refined, DWM inventory analyses 
will be more extensive. With regard to estimates of fuel 
loading, Maine's fuel profile matches what might be 
expected for a landscape dominated by Acadian forests. 
There is a tremendous amount of duff due to slow decay 
rates, but the amounts of FWD and CWD are relatively 
minimal. The shrub/herb fuel depths are low, indicating 
relatively little development of nontree vegetation that 
might serve as ladder fuels during a wildfire. Compared 
to western states, Maine's fire hazard is low. However, 



given the presence of fuels in all size classes and the large 
amounts of duff and standing timber across Maine, the 
fire hazard in Maine's forests could be great during 
extended periods of drought. 




Courtesy of Maine Forest Service 



CWD creates numerous ecological niches and serves 
as habitat for plants, animals, protists, bacteria, and 
fungi (Harmon and others 1986). Most of Maine's 
habitat type groups contain an appreciable amount of 
CWD that provides a diversity of habitat (Table 19). 
The spruce/fir and sugar maple/ash habitat types have 
the largest mean amount of CWD mass at more than 4 
tons/acre. The cedar/black spruce and oak/ white pine 
habitat types have the least amount of CWD mass at 
less than 2 tons/acre. In, Maine, one might expect low 
mortality of individual trees and subsequent CWD 
recruitment. The loadings of CWD appear adequate 
for maintaining habitat diversity across Maine. Most 
of the State's CWD pieces are dominated by small 
diameters (< 7.9 inches in transect diameter) (Fig. 48) 
in advanced stages of decay (decay classes 4 and 5) (Fig. 
49). Generally, the most desirable CWD habitat needed 
to accommodate a diversity of species is represented 
by a diversity of tree sizes and decay classes. Only an 
estimated 1 1 percent of Maine's CWD was characterized 
as freshly fallen or within several years of recruitment 
(decay class 1 or 2). 

With respect to stand-size class, the mean volume 
of CWD is greater in stands containing large- and 
medium-size trees (Fig. 50). It takes several decades 
of stand development and competition-induced tree 
mortality to recruit CWD. It is logical that stands 
with large trees would have more CWD volume than 



40 



Table 19. — Mean fuel loadings (tons/acre) and associated standard errors for habitat types, Maine, 2001-2002 



Habitat type 


No. plots 


1 hr 


SE 


10 hr 


SE 


100 hr 


SE 


1,000 hr 


SE 


Duff 


SE 


Litter 


SE 


Shrub/herbs 1 


SE 


Beech - red maple 


19 


0.47 


0.11 


0.94 


0.33 


1.92 


0.45 


2.33 


0.39 


31.02 


4.23 


1.22 


0.22 


0.79 


0.27 


Cedar - black spruce 


5 


0.18 


0.06 


0.40 


0.07 


1.30 


0.40 


1.49 


0.79 


75.74 


17.05 


0.33 


0.13 


1.30 


0.66 


Hemlock - red spruce 


8 


1.42 


0.62 


0.79 


0.10 


1.89 


0.34 


3.07 


0.52 


44.69 


6.71 


1.38 


0.35 


0.21 


0.13 


Oak - white pine 


7 


0.22 


0.05 


0.51 


0.07 


1.31 


0.25 


1.85 


0.48 


42.45 


9.47 


1.55 


0.44 


0.23 


0.13 


Spruce - fir 


53 


0.48 


0.11 


0.57 


0.06 


1.52 


0.13 


4.25 


0.50 


42.73 


2.70 


1.15 


0.13 


0.72 


0.16 


Sugar Maple - ash 


13 


0.30 


0.08 


0.41 


0.12 


1.51 


0.58 


4.18 


1.40 


30.41 


4.45 


1.25 


0.30 


1.01 


0.33 


All plots 


105 


0.50 


0.08 


0.62 


0.07 


1.59 


0.13 


3.51 


0.33 


40.79 


2.16 


1.18 


0.09 


0.72 


0.11 



a Feet. 




Large Medium Small 

Stand Size Class 

Figure 50. — Distribution of coarse woody debris volumes by stand 
size class, Maine, 2001-02. 



41 



those with smaller trees. The amount of small FWD 
was significantly greater in stands with small trees 
(Fig. 51). Because FWD is recruited through the 
development and death of fine tree-crown branches 
and saplings, it stands to reason that the ratio of fine 
branches to overall crown volume is greater in small 
trees. Therefore, a stand of small trees may have more 
FWD (1, 10, or 100 hour) than those with large and 
medium-size trees. The increase in FWD cannot be 
attributed solely to fine branch material. 

The spatial distribution of DWM attributes can be 
examined in a cursory manner by spatial interpolation 
of individual plot values (Fig. 52). CWD levels were 
significantly lower in the southern half of Maine. 
The spatial distributions of duff and litter weights 
apparently are distributed randomly. 

Distribution of Tree Species 

Displaying the spatial distribution of forest attributes 
enhances our ability to address the "where" part of 
the overall challenge of looking at prospective future 
developments in species composition. The purpose of 
these distribution surfaces is to display the current spatial 
distribution of species across Maine's forested landscape. 



< 



o 0.6 




Large 



Medium 
Stand Size Class 



Small 



Figure 51. — Distribution of fine woody debris loadings by 
stand-size class, Maine, 2001-02. 



Compositional patterns depend on a complex mix of 
factors. Broad geophysical and biophysical features are 
apparent; however, local site conditions and factors 
affecting trends in their composition are beyond these 
distributions; hence, the use of surfaces rather than 
"maps." Figure 53 shows species-distribution surfaces 
for select softwood and hardwood species using basal 
area of the species of interest as a percentage of total 
basal area per acre. 




42 




Figure 53. — Estimated basal-area proportion for selected species, Maine, 2003. 



43 





Figure 53 (continued). — Estimated basal-area proportion for selected species, Maine, 2003. 



44 



« 400 



77.1%of the forested plots 
have 1 -4 shrub/vine species tallied 
599 



The concentration of red spruce 
in the Central and Western 
Mountains is evident, as is the 
abundance of this species in St. 
Johns Uplands, Aroostook Hills, 
and Eastern Lowlands. Red maple 
is scattered across Maine with 
the highest concentration in the 
Southwest interior and South 
Coastal Regions. Balsam fir is 
common from the Central Interior 
northward. Concentrations of fir 
are high in pockets to the north 
and west of Mount Katahdin. The 
association of eastern white pine 
with Coastal Maine is evident, as 
is the occurrence of this species in 
the Central, Southern, and Coastal 
regions. Northern white-cedar is common across the 
State and follows a predictable pattern through low- 
lying wet areas. Sugar maple is most common from 
the Interior regions northward. The distribution of 
eastern hemlock nearly mirrors that of sugar maple, 
with localized high concentrations in Washington 
County and in the southwestern portion of the State. 
Aspen is found mostly in central and northern Maine. 
Paper birch is prevalent in Mountain and other upland 
regions, particularly the higher elevation Central and 
Western Mountains. The distribution of yellow birch 
mimics sugar maple but with more diffuse occurrence. 
Beech is found throughout the State with patchy 
occurrence in Mountain regions. Northern red oak is 
most common in the warmer regions in the southwest. 

Shrubs and Vines 

The FIA tally of shrubs and vines includes deciduous, 
evergreen, and dwarf shrubs, and vines; there are as 
many as 96 unique species or groupings of species. 
Shrubs and vines are tallied on a milacre plot concentric 
to the 1/300-acre microplot that is used to tally seedlings 
and saplings. For each condition class, as many as 99 
individuals can be tallied for each species grouping. 

In the 2003 inventory, 75 species groups were tallied 
in Maine; 87 percent of the forested plots had shrubs 




Number of Unique Shrub/Vine Species Tallied per Forested Plot 



Figure 54. — Richness index for shrub and vine species (the number of forested 
plots from panels 1-5) and total count of unique species, Maine, 2003. 



and vines of some nature. Of the 2,759 forested plots, 
deciduous shrubs occurred on 75 percent, dwarf 
shrubs were present on 56 percent, evergreen shrubs 
on 1 1 percent, and vines on 3 percent. 

Figure 54 depicts only forested plots on which 
shrubs and vines were recorded and the frequency 
distribution of plots with unique species counts 
(species richness). Slightly more than 77 percent of the 
plots from the five panels had four or fewer shrub and 
vine species. Only 1.5 percent would be characterized 
as being high in diversity, i.e., 10 or more shrub and 
vine species. 

The most frequently occurring shrub or vine species 
are the bunchberry dwarf shrub, found on more than 
half of the plots, Rhubus species (raspberry), tallied on 
40 percent, and blueberry and twinflower (20 percent 
each) (Table 20). 

Because of the nature of the FIA inventory, there is 
less opportunity for finding and recording species that 
occupy areas of diverse biotic edges or species that are 
classified as exotic/invasive. The frequency of species of 
concern, e.g. buckthorn, barberry, and honeysuckle, is 
relatively low in Maine. 



45 



Table 20. — Distribution of shrub and vine species on FIA sample plots, Maine, 2003 



Species 


Number of forested plots 


Species 


Number of forested plots 


Bunchberry 


1 A 1 3 


TV 

Pipsissewa 


jZ 


ivnuDus species 


1 \j J 1 


Chokeberry species 


30 


Blueberry 


^46 


Rose species 


9 Q 
ZO 


Twinflower 


S44 


Common Juniper 


94 

Z^i 


Beaked Hazelnut 


J(JO 


Silky Dogwood 


94 
Z4 


Teaberry 


490 


Swamp Laurel 


99 
ZZ 


Creeping Snowberry 


3QQ 
JOO 


Sweet Gale 


ZZ 


Hobblebush Viburnum 


9/ / 


Chokecherry species 


1 

ly 


Dusn rioneysucKie 


343 


Buckthorn 


1 8 
1 




391 
9Z 1 


vine - unKnown 


1 7 


c * 

opirea 


9^9 

ZjZ 


L^anaua Yew 


19 


\ a / 1 f~ ri rc\ /H \/iniirnn m 
W lLllC IAJU V 1L/U.II1UII1 


949 


vjiay-sieiiiiiieu Lvogwoou 


1 3 
1 9 


Sheep Laurel 


9/t 3 


Clamatic species 


1 9 
1Z 


Currant/ Gooseberry 


9 1 < 
Z it) 


Rhododendron 


1 O 
lu 


i artnugeuerry 


919 

Z1Z 


Evergreen Shrub - Unknown 


1 
1 u 


Shrub Willow species 


151 


Lirape species 





W/interberry Holly 


1 JO 


Staghorn Sumac 






Mountain-holly 


1 33 


Dwarf Shrub - Unknown 







Alder 


1 30 
19U 


Round-leaved Dogwood 


/ 


Red-osier Dogwood 


1 17 


Mountain Laurel 


-7 

/ 


American Elderberry 


O/ 


Highbush Cranberry 


-7 

/ 


Z\ An/'i n 1 — 1 T7P nut 


76 


due xvoscmary 


9 


j-^dDracior ica 


/ 


jDaruerry 


9 


wiicn nazei 


71 

/ 1 


Hog Peanut 


9 


Arrowwood Viburnum 


67 
0/ 


Smooth Sumac 


/ 


Nannyberry 


09 


Vine Honeysuckle 


3 


xveci-Derrieci nicierDerry 


S7 

9/ 


oayuerry 


3 


1 PQrn/^rl^Qr 


S3 
j j 


vircrinio ( rppnpr 


3 


\A o t~\ 1 ro\trc\ \f i hi i rn 1 1 m 

IV Id. LUC ICaVCU V 1 L9 LI 1 1 1 LI 1 1 1. 


49 


Hprrn p<; ( nn 


2 


Sweetfern 


/iQ 
4o 


Buttonbush 


z 


rviternate-ieaveQ uogwooQ 


49 


/ijnerican Dittcrswcct 


9 


l oison ivy 


40 


JWCCL 1 CppCl UU.M1 


9 


Huckleberry 


39 


Male-Berry 


2 


Deciduous Shrub - Unknown 


37 


American Bladdernut 


2 


Azalea (deciduous) 


35 


Striped Pipsissewa 


1 


Cranberry 


33 


Large Leaf Holly 


1 


Vimurnum species 


33 


Common Prickly-Ash 


1 



46 




Biomass 

Biomass provides the most inclusive accounting of tree- 
fiber resources from Maine's forest. Biomass information 
can be used to address a host of issues, e.g., residue 
availability, which could be captured as part of current 
harvesting practices and be reasonably transported, 
processed, and utilized for new products or as alternative 
fuels and energy sources. FIA partitions the biomass of 
growing-stock trees into four major components: growing 
stock (the traditional bole portion), branches, foliage, and 
stumps and roots (Appendix Tables A4l, A44, and A45). 
An inclusive estimate for FIA rough and rotten trees is 
included. The bole portion comprises the bulk of total 
biomass. The total from this table (total timber) is carried 
forward to biomass summary tables that also include 
saplings, dead trees, and shrubs (Appendix Tables A40, 
A42, andA43). 

The current total biomass estimate on timberland is 
980 million dry tons, a 13-percent increase since 1995 
(Wharton and Griffith 1995). Probability surfaces for 
softwood, hardwood, and total aboveground biomass are 
shown in Figure 55. 



The sapling-component estimate reflects a 22-percent 
increase followed by the timber component (+11 
percent). These increased estimates complement 
increases in volume discussed elsewhere. 

Estimates of overall change in biomass reflect the effects 
of land-use change, harvesting, and regrowth. Figure 
56 shows changes in biomass per acre by town between 
1991 and 2000. The classification of forest land is based 
on the ability of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery to 
detect change. Little of Maine's forest land has changed 
in terms of biomass. The yellow areas show where 
biomass is increasing due to increases in forest-land area 
or regrowth. By far, most of the yellow areas represent 
regrowth as they occur in areas with little increase of 
forest land, mainly in the unorganized regions in the 
northern half of Maine. The red areas depict where 
forest land is being lost, harvesting has occurred, or 
some other factor is reducing biomass per acre. Most of 
the red areas are in the southern half of the State. 



47 



Forest Biomass Increase Percent 1991-2000 Forest Biomass Decrease Percent 1991-2000 

for Each Town in Maine for Each Town in Maine 




Figure 56. — Percent change in forest biomass by town, Maine, 1991 to 2000. 



Inventory Volume 

During the analysis of the new annual inventory data and results, it became apparent that the 1995 
tree volumes needed to be reviewed due to discrepancies in measured tree bole and sawlog lengths. 
A new model for estimating tree height was developed and implemented for this report (Westfall 
and Laustsen, in press). As shown in Figure 58, the new estimates of 1982 and 1995 growing-stock 
volume correlate well with trends in basal area— an indication that tree heights are now in line. 

There are a number of options for discussing inventory volume (see Appendix Tables A17, Bl 1, and 
CI 1). The following summarizes the distribution of volume (million ft 3 ) for trees at least 5.0 inches 
d.b.h. on timberland by tree class for the three most recent inventories: 



Tree Class 


1982 


1995 


2003 


Sawtimber 


12,348.6 


11,840.8 


12,616.8 


Poletimber 


11,760.5 


10,145.4 


9,796.7 


Total growing stock 


24,109.1 


21,986.2 


22,413.4 


Rough 


1,941.7 


880.4 


1,132.9 


Rotten 


898.3 


311.5 


223.2 


Total cull 


2,840.0 


1,191.9 


1,356.1 


Volume of live trees 


26,949.1 


23,178.1 


23,769.4 


Salvable dead 


535.7 


409.5 


449.7 


Volume of all trees 


27,484.8 


23,587.6 


24,219.2 



48 



Forest Carbon 

Estimates of forest carbon are derived from biomass estimates and reflect carbon dioxide (CO,) fluxes in 
greenhouse-gas accounting. In 2003, Maine enacted legislation that requires the Department of Environmental 
Prorection, Bureau of Air Quality, to produce a statewide Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission inventory annually. 



The Environmental Protection Agency, through its 
contractor and with input from the USDA Forest 
Service, developed a spreadsheet program to assist 
individual states in compiling GHG inventories. 
The program includes default inventory data, 
with an option for users to input their own data 
to improve prediction accuracy. Maine's 1995 FIA 
inventory was used to estimate forested conditions 
for the 2000 ending base year. It was estimated 
that the Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF) 
account provided 15 percent of the CO, emissions 
(Fig. 57). The magnitude and direction (emission 
vs. sequestration) did not agree with recent annual 
inventory reports by MFS that estimated that forest 
land and biomass increased from 1995 to 2002 
(Laustsen and others 2003). 



Industrial process 

4<>/ Agriculture 
Commercial | / 

5% 



Industrial 
10% 



Residential 
14% 




Transportation 

29% 



Electric utilities 
17% 



Additional investigation determined that the carbon 



Figure 57. — Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions, 
Maine, 2000. 
component of soils represented nearly 60 percent 

of predicted emissions in the total forest carbon flux. For the initial base estimate, the 1990 Forest Carbon Flux 
uses revised estimates of Maine's 1982 FIA periodic inventory as reported in the 1987 Resource Planning Act 
Assessment (RPA). The ending base estimates a 2000 Forest Carbon Flux using Maine's 1995 periodic inventory 
as reported in the 1997 RPA. The inconsistent treatment and updating of the base estimates was further 
compounded with additional changes in classification techniques, sampling design, and the FORCARB models. 

After these improvements and land-use change information were incorporated, it was found that the GHG 
accounting and inventory estimated that the LUCF account became a minor sequestration source from 1990 to 
2000. The challenge is how forest management can improve the ability of Maine's expansive forest resource to 
become a larger and more effective sink for carbon. 



300,000 



1,500,000 



250,000 

■o 
o 
o 

S 200,000 



1,250,000 



1,000,000 



150,000 



750,000 



3, 100,000 
c 

3 
o 

O 50,000 



■ 


Orig. Volume 


500,000 


Sto 


A 


1995 Restatement 




C 


• 


2003 Restatement 




g 




Basal Area 


250,000 


O 

6 




1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 
Inventory Year 



Figure 58. — Growing-stock volume and 
basal area on timberland, Maine, 1959, 
1971, 1982, 1995, 2002 (on the y-axis, 
5 square feet of basal area equals 1 
cord of wood). 



49 



350 - 

300 A MM 

Mill 



1959 



1971 



1982 
Year 



1995 



2003 



Figure 59. — Volume of pulpwood quality or better trees on timberland, 
Maine, 1959, 1971, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



30000 



25000 



u. 20000 

o 

= 15000 
c 

■i 10000 



5000 



Softwood □ Hardwood 



1982 



1995 
Year 



2003 



Figure 60. — Volume of live trees on forest land by inventory year, 
Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



Softwood 



5000 



a 4000 




10 12 14 16 
Diameter Class 
Hardwood 



5000 



% 4000 



3000 



2000 




10 12 14 16 18 20 22+ 
Diameter Class (inches) 



Figure 61. — Volume of live trees on forest land by diameter 
class and inventory year, Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



The most traditional measure is growing-stock 
volume on timberland, which represents the 
net merchantable volume of the central stem 
of trees at least 5 inches d.b.h. on acres that 
are productive, accessible, and not reserved 
from harvesting (forest land also includes 
nonproductive areas). Growing-stock volume 
currently totals 22.4 million ft 3 , of which 56 
percent is softwood and 44 percent is hardwood. 
Growing-stock volume excludes the volume of 
rough and rotten trees. In Maine, the volume of 
pulpwood quality or better trees on timberland 
often is discussed because it includes trees that are 
useable as pulpwood (growing-stock and rough 
trees, but not rotten trees). The long-term trend in 
pulpwood or better inventory volume is depicted 
in Figure 59. The volume of pulpwood or better 
trees reached a peak that was apparent in the 1982 
inventory. Total volume then decreased by 12 
percent following the SBE. The pulpwood quality 
volume was stable between 1995 and 2003. 

The most inclusive estimates of volume include 
growing-stock, and rough and rotten trees, or 
the volume of live trees on forest land. Recent 
trends in the volume of live trees parallel those 
for pulpwood-quality trees (Fig. 60). Again, the 
most striking change in volume occurred between 
the 1982 and 1995 inventories. It is clear that 
although hardwood volume decreased slightly, 
the drop in total live inventory resulted primarily 
from the decrease in softwood volume as a result 
of spruce budworm mortality and related salvage- 
harvest activities. The latter decrease resulted 
from major reductions in volume in the 6- to 
12-inch diameter classes (Fig. 61) for softwoods, 
particularly red spruce and balsam fir. As expected, 
most of the decrease was in the Northern 
megaregion (Fig. 62). This decrease in volume has 
been at the center of discussions about the future 
of Maine's next-generation forest. 

The 2003 estimates indicate that the total 
inventory of live trees on forest land has increased 



50 



Northern 



Eastern 



20000 



5 15000 



10000 



= 5000 




20000 

"5 

£ 15000 

o 

a 10000 
o 

.2 5000 



1982 



1995 
Year 

Southern 



2003 



20000 
• 15000 




Figure 62. — Volume of live trees on forest land by megaregion and 
inventory year, Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



Red spruce 
Red maple 
White pine 
Balsam fir 
Northern white-cedar 
Sugar maple 
Eastern hemlock 
Aspen 
Paper Birch 
Yellow birch 
Beech 
Northern red oak 




Softwood □ Hardwood 



H B 



1982 



1995 
Year 



2003 



Western 




1982 



1995 
Year 



2003 



1 2003 B1995 D1982 



1000 2000 3000 4000 

Million Cubic Feet 



5000 



6000 



Figure 63. — Volume of live trees on forest land by inventory year for selected species, 
Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



by 3 percent since 1995. Figure 63 shows trends in 
volume for selected species in Maine. Although many 
species did not change appreciably, there are signs that 
conditions have improved over the last 8 years. Trends for 



red spruce and balsam fir are prime indicators. Between 
the 1982 and 1995 inventories, the volume of these two 
species decreased by 49 and 35 percent, respectively. 
The bulk of these decreases occurred in the 6- to 12- 



51 



inch diameter classes (Fig. 64). The 2003 results show 
little change in balsam fir volume and a slight increase in 
red spruce volume — a sign that Maine's forests are stable. 
American beech experienced a recent volume decrease of 
17 percent. This occurred across a wide range of diameters 
following an expansion in the volume of 6- to 1 0-inch 
trees between 1982 and 1995 (Fig. 65). Other species with 
significant decreases are northern white-cedar (-4 percent) 
and aspen (-8 percent). Species with notable positive gains 
are hemlock (26 percent) and northern red oak (18 percent). 

Sawtimber Volume 

The volume of sawtimber on timberland represents that 
portion of the resource capable of being used as traditional 
veneer logs, sawlogs, bolts, and other sawn products. 
Sawtimber volume includes the merchantable board-foot 
volume of the central stem for trees 9 and 1 1 d.b.h. for 
softwoods and hardwoods, respectively, that are of sufficient 
quality to be considered sawtimber. The upper limits of 
merchantability are 7 and 9 inches top diameter outside 
bark, respectively. The 2003 results show that the overall 
sawtimber volume has changed little over the last 2 decades 
(Fig. 66). Hardwood sawtimber increased slightly between 
1995 and 2003, but at a slower rate than between 1982 and 
1995. Changes in sawtimber volume by megaregion were 
minor (Fig. 67). 

The results revealed differences in trends for individual 
species (Fig 68). On the positive side, paper birch has 
increased by 14 percent since 1995 following a slight 
decrease between 1982 and 1995. Red oak sawtimber has 
expanded by 25 percent since 1995, but at a slower rate of 
increase than the 59-percent increase between 1982 and 
1995. White spruce and hemlock sawtimber increased 
steadily over both periods. 

On the negative side, sugar maple decreased by 6 percent 
between 1995 and 2003, a significant reversal of a previous 
34-percent increase in sawtimber volume. White pine 
sawtimber decreased by 3 percent following an increase of 
46 percent between 1982 and 1995. Northern white-cedar 
also experienced the reversal of a positive trend that was 
evident 1982 and 1995. Both red spruce and balsam fir 
had minor decreases in sawtimber inventory, though these 
decreases were minor compared to previous decreases of 26 
and 46 percent, respectively. 



Red Spruce 



2000 



,?> 1500 




8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22+ 
Diameter Class (inches) 

Balsam Fir 



2000 




10 12 14 16 18 
Diameter Class (inches) 

Figure 64. — Volume of live red spruce and balsam fir 
trees on forest land, by diameter class and inventory 
year, Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



Beech 



400 



300 



200 



100 





1982 - - 


-1995 


2003 











10 12 14 16 18 
Diameter Class (inches) 



20 



22+ 



Figure 65. — Volume of live beech trees on forest land, by 
diameter class and inventory year, Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



80000 



_ S. 60000 

T3 T 

n a 

o - 40000 
£0 "5 



20000 




1982 



1995 
Year 



2003 



Figure 66. — Volume of sawtimber on timberland by 
inventory year, Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 



52 



Northern 



Eastern 



§ E 



I Softwood □ Hardwood 



1982 



1995 
Year 



2003 



Southern 




2003 



40000 



„ u. 30000 



to « 

c c 

o o 

^ 1 10000 



40000 



■ Softwood □ Hardwood 






■ 


■ W_ 


1982 


1995 2003 
Year 

Western 



a r- 

£ | 

"D T 



30000 



20000 



5 = 



10000 




Figure 67. — Volume of sawtimber on timberland by megaregion and inventory year, Maine, 1 982, 1 995, 2003. 



Red spruce 
White pine 
Sugar maple 
Hemlock | 
Red maple 
Northern w hite-cedar 
Balsam fir 
Aspen 
Yellow birch 
White spruce 
Northern red oak 
Paper birch 
Beech 




2003 H995 □ 1982 







2000 



4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 
Million Board Feet (International 1/4-inch rule) 

Figure 68. — Volume of sawtimber on timberland by inventory year and diameter class, Maine, 1982, 1995, 2003. 





Figure 69 depicts the current distribution of sawtimber 
volume on a per-acre basis for select species and all species 
combined. Sawtimber volume is well distributed across 
Maine but is more common in the Western and Northern 
megaregions. White pine sawtimber is located primarily in 
the Southern megaregion. The sawtimber volume of spruce 
and fir is concentrated heavily in the Western and Northern 



megaregions, as well as the Downeast area. Red maple is 
common across Maine but is less common above a latitude 
of 45 degrees N. Sugar maple, beech, and birch are most 
abundant in the Western and Northern megaregions. 
Intolerant hardwoods are most prevalent in a band 
extending from Oxford County westward to Hancock 
County, and are scattered in the Northern megaregion. 



54 



28 



18 



10 



20 



53 



32 



12 



43 



37 



56 



1995 2003 
White Pine 



1995 2003 
Sugar Maple 



1995 2003 
Red Maple 



1995 2003 
Yellow and White 
Birch 



1995 2003 
Aspen 



56 



1995 2003 
Northern Red Oak 



□ Grades4&5 

□ Grade 3 

□ Grades 1 &2 



Figure 70. — Percentage of sawtimber 
volume on timberland by tree grade 
for white pine and major hardwood 
species, Maine, 1995 and 2003. 



24 



23 



53 



53 



20 



30 



49 



12 



63 



23 



19 



30 



22 



16 



71 



□ Grades4&5 

□ Grade 3 

□ Grades 1 &2 



1995 2003 
White Pine 



1995 2003 
Sugar Maple 



1995 2003 
Red Maple 



1995 2003 

Yellow and White 
Birch 



1995 2003 
Aspen 



1995 2003 
Northern Red Oak 



Figure 71 . — Percentage of sawtimber 
volume on timberland by tree grade 
for white pine and major hardwood 
species with a minimum diameter of 
15.0 inches, Maine, 1995 and 2003. 



The distribution of sawtimber volume by tree grade 
provides an estimate of the relative quality of species 
in Maine and potential sawtimber products, especially 
hardwoods and white pine. Trees of sawtimber size are 
assigned a tree grade based on the quality characteristics 
of the first 16-foot section of the bole. Factors affecting 
the grade assignment are minimum diameter, length 
of clear cuttings, and other form and cull defects. 
The board-foot volume of each tree is ascribed to the 
tree grade and summed to provide the distribution. 
Minimum diameter is a critical variable in determining 
tree grade. For example, to be considered for grade 1, the 
minimum diameter of the graded section is 16.0 inches. 
Typically, sawmills prefer tree grades one and two for the 
more desirable lumber products (premium and better for 
pine; firsts and seconds for hardwoods). Tree grade three 
is less desirable and the other grade material often is used 



for products such as pallets, which do not require long 
sections of clear wood. 

The distribution of sawtimber volume by tree grade 
for all trees for the two most recent inventories shows 
improvement for sugar maple, red maple, yellow and 
white birch, and aspen (Fig. 70). The improvement is 
apparent by the increase in the percentage of grade 1 and 
2 material. White pine quality decreased and northern 
red oak showed little change; however, the distribution is 
heavily influenced by tree size. When only trees at least 
15.0 inches d.b.h. are considered, white pine shows little 
change and northern red oak shows some improvement 
(Fig. 71). The reason is that trees with high quality 
potential are classified as lower grades until they reach the 
minimum threshold for tree grade 2. 



55 



o 



Wood Availability 

A complete analysis of wood availability in 
Maine is beyond the scope of this report. 
However, a discussion of key concepts that 
underlie actual wood availability should help 
clarify current conditions and aid in future 
studies. Wood availability is dependant 
on complex interactions among physical, 
economic, and social constraints. For 
example, most of the white pine sawtimber is in 
the southwestern part of the State. Other physical 
constraints include factors such as slope, distance 
to a road, and product volume per acre. Figure 72 
shows how the inventory of growing-stock volume 
on timberland is distributed by volume-per-acre 
class. About one-fourth of timberland has less than 
500 ft 3 (less than 6 cords) per acre, though this 
acreage accounts for only 4 percent of the inventory 
volume. About half of the volume is in stands with 
at least 2,000 ft 3 (more than 23 cords) per acre, but 
this volume occurs on less than one-fourth of the 
timberland. As such, the inventory for stands with 
enough volume per acre to make harvest feasible is 
more limited than the total inventory statistics would 
imply. This phenomenon is most prominent for the 
forest-industry owner group (Fig. 73). Conditions 
are similar for the volume of sawtimber (Figs. 74-75). 

Ownership objectives play a strong role in wood 
availability. As mentioned earlier, the primary 
reason for holding forest land cited by Maine's 
family/individual owners are aesthetics, privacy, and 
family legacy. Add to these factors the relationship 
between timber supply and demand and it is 
obvious that wood availability is less than simple 
inventory metrics imply. Efforts are needed to 
develop an integrated approach for predicting 
future wood supplies, as was done by Gadzik and 
others (1998) and Seymour and Lemin (1989). 
There is an opportunity to add economic and 
ecological indicators to the mix of projected 
parameters (Turner and Caldwell 2001). 



2500+ 

tit 

VI 

5 2000-2499 

a 

< 1500-1999 
i 1000-1499 

0) 

£ 500-999 
E 

0-499 



□ Volume 
■ Area 



0.0 



10.0 



20.0 
Percent 



30.0 



40.0 



Figure 72. — Area of timberland and growing-stock volume by volume class, 
Maine, 2003. 

Forest Industry 




□ Volume 
■ Area 



40.0 



NIPF 




□ Volume 
■ Area 



40.0 



Figure 73. — Area of timberland and growing-stock volume by 
volume class and private owner class, Maine, 2003. 



10000+ 



<-> 8000-9999 

CD 

< 6000-7999 



~ 4000-5999 

CD 
CD 



■o 2000-3999 
n 

m 0-1999 




□ Volume 
■ Area 



0.0 10.0 



20.0 30.0 40.0 
Percent 



50.0 60.0 



Figure 74. — Area of timberland and sawtimber volume by stand 
volume class, Maine, 2003. 



56 



Forest Industry 



10000+ 
8000-9999 
6000-7999 
4000-5999 
2000-3999 

0-1999 



□ Volume 
■ Area 



0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 
Percent 

NIPF 



10000+ 
8000-9999 
6000-7999 
4000-5999 
2000-3999 

0-1999 



□ Volume 
■ Area 



0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 
Percent 



50.0 60.0 



Figure 75. — Area of timberland and sawtimber volume by 
stand volume class and private owner class, Maine, 2003. 



Components of Volume Change 

Changes in the volume of Maine's forests depend on the 
interrelationship of growth, removals, and mortality, 
or the components of change. In this section, change 
components are expressed as growing-stock, live-tree, 
and sawtimber volume to provide a link to changes 
occurring in inventory volume. An analysis based on 
basal area is included as a crosscheck to changes in 
volume. This crosscheck is important in light of recent 
changes in sample design, the limited remeasurement 
sample, and the evolution of estimation procedures (see 
Change in Basal Area). Usually, three terms are used to 
discuss changes in inventory: gross growth, net growth, 
and net change: 

Gross Growth = Ingrowth (trees achieving merchantable 
size) + Accretion (survivor growth); 

Net Growth = Gross Growth - Mortality; 

Net Change = Net Growth - Removals 



In the case of growing-stock and sawtimber inventory, 
the net difference between trees entering the growing- 
stock class (as cull decrement) and departing the 
growing-stock class (as cull increment) is added or 
subtracted to growth as appropriate. 

All components are expressed on an average annual 
basis from the year of the previous plot measurement 
to the current year of plot measurement. If all 
sample plots were remeasured, the net change 
based on change components should match the 
change based on inventory volume. Currently, these 
estimates do not match because of the relatively low 
number of remeasured plots. As each new panel is 
added, the sample or remeasured plots and trees 
will increase substantially. For example, more trees 
were remeasured in the sixth year than in all of the 
previous 5 years. 

Growing Stock 

Change components expressed as growing-stock 
volume on timberland indicate how the manageable 
portion of Maine's forest inventory is changing over 
time. Figures 76 and 77 illustrate the simple but 
important relationship between specific components 
for all species and the major species groups. The 
tight relationship between net growth and removals 
explains why inventory volume has changed little 
since 1995. This situation will continue until the 
large inventory of submerchantable stems grows 
to the 5-inch merchantability limit. At that time, 
increases in the ingrowth component will boost 
overall net growth. The large impact of mortality 
on gross growth also is well illustrated. Softwood 
mortality was about one-third of gross growth and 
one-fourth of hardwood gross growth over the period. 

The results for species/species groups show that 
several species currently have removals in excess of 
net growth, including red spruce, balsam fir, northern 
white-cedar, aspen, paper birch, and beech (Fig. 78). 
Species/species groups with net growth in excess of 
removals include red maple, white pine, sugar maple, 
yellow birch, and northern red oak. As discussed 
previously, information on change components does 



57 



not always match changes reflected in 
the inventory. White pine illustrates the 
statistical mismatch between change in 
inventory volume and net change based 
on change components. Although the 
species had considerable excess of growth 
over removals, the inventory volume of 
white pine volume showed little change. 
The situation for northern white-cedar 
and beech further illustrate how the 
various components interact (Fig. 79). 
The negative net change in the volume 
of northern white-cedar was caused by 
a high level of removals, rather than 
mortality. The decrease in inventory 
volume of beech was due to high levels of 
mortality that effectively made net growth 
negative (rather than heavy removals). 
In the case of beech, mortality exceeded 
removals. 

Live Tree 

Change components for live trees reflect 
all tree classes and usually parallel the 
results for growing-stock volume. The 
basic difference between them is that 
live-tree components do not include 
changes in cull trees so that less volume 
is subtracted from gross growth in 
calculating net growth. Also, land 
switching between timberland and forest 
land is not a factor. As such, the results 
look slightly better than for growing 
stock (Fig. 80). The ratio of net growth 
to removals is useful for summarizing 
net growth and removals relationships. 
Ratios less than 1 indicate decreases in 
volume while ratios greater than 1 indicate 
increases in volume. As an example of 
differences between growing-stock and 
live-tree estimates, the red spruce ratio was 
0.64 to 1.0 based on growing-stock trees 
and 0.94 to 1.0 using live trees (Fig. 81). 



□ 



CZZ1 



Ingrowth Accretion 



Gross 
Growth 



Mortality Change in Net Growth Removals Net 
Cull change 



Figure 76. — Average annual components of change in growing-stock volume 
on timberland for all species, Maine, 1996-2003. 



500 



n 








Softwood 

















Ingrowth Accretion Gross Mortality Change in Net Removals Net 
Growth Cull Growth change 




Ingrowth Accretion Gross 
Growth 



Mortality Change in Net 
Cull Growth 



Removals Net 
change 



Figure 77. — Average annual components of change in softwood and hardwood 
growing-stock volume on timberland, Maine, 1996-2003. 



58 



Red spruce 
Red maple 
White pine 
Balsam fir 
Northern white-cedar 
Sugar maple 
Aspen 
Paper birch 
Yellow birch 
Beech 
Red oak 



□ Removals 
■ Net Growth 



20 



40 60 
Thousand Cubic Feet 



80 



100 



Figure 78. — Average annual net growth and removals of growing-stock volume on timberland 
for selected species, Maine, 1996-2003 (note: negative net-growth values for beech are not 
shown). 



Northern White-Cedar 



□ 



□ □ 



□ 



Ingrowth Accretion Gross Mortality Change in Net Removals Net 
Growth Cull Growth change 



Beech 



. I I 



Ingrowth Accretion Gross Mortality Change in Net Removals Net 
Growth Cull Growth change 



Figure 79. — Average annual components of change in northern white- 
cedar and beech growing-stock volume on timberland, Maine, 1996-2003. 



Figure 80. — Average annual 
components of change for live- 
tree volume on timberland for all 
species, Maine, 1996-2003. 



Ingrowth Accretion 



Gross 
Growth 



Mortality Net Growth Removals Net change 



Red spruce 
Red maple 
White pine 
Balsam fir 
Northern white-cedar 
Sugar maple 
Aspen 
Paper birch 
Yellow birch 
Beech 
Red Oak 



□ Removals 
■ Net Growth 



20 



40 60 
Thousand Cubic Feet 



80 



100 



Figure 81 . — Average annual net growth 
and removals of live-tree volume on 
timberland for selected species, Maine, 
1996-2003. (note: negative net-growth values 
for northern white-cedar and beech are not 
shown.) 



Ratios of live-tree growth to removals also are useful for 
analyzing relationships among megaregions. These ratios 



were: 
Region 


Softwood 


Hardwood 


All species 


Northern 


0.9:1.0 


0.8 


1.0 


0.9:1.0 


Eastern 


1.4:1.0 


0.8 


1.0 


1.1:1.0 


Southern 


1.4:1.0 


1.4 


1.0 


1.4:1.0 


Western 


1.1:1.0 


1.3 


1.0 


1.2:1.0 


State 


1.1:1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


1.1:1.0 



Total removals were 2.3 percent of the 1995 estimate 
of live-tree volume. A noteworthy breakdown of total 
removal volume is by harvest removal and removal due 
conversion of forest land to nonforest land uses. Although 
loss of forest land is not a major issue in Maine, it is 
important to note that 6 percent of the removal volume 
was attributed to forest land being converted to other 



uses. The more important finding is for species located 
in regions of the State where conversion is more likely. 
Prime examples are white pine and red oak for which 
24 percent and 38 percent, respectively, of the removal 
volume was due to conversion to nonforest uses (Fig. 82). 

Sawtimber 

Change components, expressed in board feet, are shown 
in Figures 83 and 84. These data are more unreliable than 
components based on growing stock or live trees because 
the portion of sawtimber in the overall sample is smaller. 
In fact, the results for net change in total sawtimber 
(negative) do not match those for sawtimber inventory 
volume (positive). The change in inventory volume is 
more reliable because it is based on a sample of many 
more trees. These figures should be used with caution and 
are presented here for completeness. 



60 



Red spruce 
Red maple 
White pine 
Balsam fir 
Northern white-cedar 
Sugar maple 
Eastern hemlock 
Aspen 
Paper Birch 
Yellow birch 
Beech 
Red oak 



I 



20 



40 60 
Percent 



80 



□ Harvest 

□ Conversion 



100 



Figure 82. — Percentage of average 
annual live-tree removals on forest land 
by source and species/species group, 
Maine, 1996-2003. 



2000 



„ 1500 

| * 1000 

g 5 500 
m ? 



"2 n 



c 

(« .2 

3 ' ' 

o 







5 -500 



<u 



~-1000 



-1500 



Ingrowth Accretion Gross Mortality Change in Net Growth Removals Net change 
Growth Cull 

Figure 83. — Average annual components of change for sawtimber on timberland, Maine, 1 996-2003. 



Red spruce 
Red maple 
White pine 
Balsam fir 
Northern white-cedar 
Sugar maple 
Aspen 
Paper birch 
Yellow birch 
Beech 
Northern red oak 




20 40 60 80 

Thousand Cubic Feet 



D Removals 
■ Net Growth 



100 



Figure 84 — Average annual net growth and 
removals of sawtimber volume on timberland 
for selected species, Maine, 1996-2003 (note: 
negative net growth values for beech are not 
shown). 



61 



Change in Basal Area 

In the early years of the annual inventory, components of change were evaluated 
using basal area to overcome limitations of a relatively small remeasurement sample 
(Laustsen and others 2003; Laustsen and Griffith 2002). The continuation of this analysis 
provides a link to previous reports and an assessment of trends but more importantly 
a strong correlation with the volume-based inventory and components of change. The 
analysis was conducted for growing-stock trees on timberland from 1995 to 2003 (Table 
21). 

The annualized net change as a percentage of growing-stock basal area has improved 
over the 3-year period. In the third annual report, this rate was estimated at -1 .3 percent. 
It improved to -1 .1 percent in the fourth report, and again to the current estimate of -0.9 
percent. These three estimates continue to track the status in which removals exceed 
net growth; however, the steady improvement is encouraging. 

Estimates of components of change for individual species illustrate past problems and 
future trends: 

• Balsam fir's estimated annual basal-area ingrowth is 20 percent more than 
accretion, indicating a younger forest beginning to cross the merchantability 
threshold of 5 inches d.b.h.. 

• The 1 -percent net change for eastern hemlock represents a reversal from the 
1995 analysis. 

• American beech is a species of concern for two reasons. First, the estimate of 
growing-stock decrement is 200 percent more than the estimate for increment, 
indicating substantial reductions in quality over the last 8 years. Second, the 
annualized change of -5.3 percent further documents the imbalance in growth, 
mortality, and removals. 

• The major species that are most out of balance in net change are American 
beech (-5.3 percent), aspen (-2.3), red spruce (-2.3), and balsam fir (-1.9). In 
the case of red spruce and balsam fir, a positive relationship should occur when 
small trees begin to reach the 5.0-inch merchantability limit. 



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63 



All species 



Hardwoods 



Softwoods 













Average Rate for the Period = 1.2 percent 











0.0 



0.2 



0.4 



0.6 



1.0 



1.2 



1.4 



1.6 



0.8 
Percent 

Figure 85. — Average annual mortality of live-tree volume on forest land as a percentage of inventory, Maine, 2003. 



Balsam fir 
Beech 
Paper birch 
Aspen 
Red spruce 
White pine 
Yellow birch 
Northern white-cedar 
Red maple 
Red oak 
Eastern Hemlock 
Sugar maple 



0.0 



05. 



Average Rate for the Period = 1.2 percent 



1.0 



1.5 



2.0 
Percent 



2.5 



3.0 



3.5 



4.0 



Figure 86. — Average annual mortality of live-tree volume on forest land as a percentage of inventory for select species, 
Maine, 2003. 



Mortality 

Estimates of mortality or the volume of trees that died 
since the previous inventory are the most important 
forest-health variable collected by FIA. Mortality reflects 
a combination of factors that cause tree death. The 
estimates are intended to describe major disturbances 
that affect significant acreage or numbers of trees, e.g., 
effects of ice storms (Irland 1998). Ultimately, tree death 
creates gaps and openings that result in the establishment 
of new trees. It should be noted that mortality may be 
underrepresented because a tree that dies and then is 
cut is classified as removal because of the difficulty in 
determining whether it died prior to cutting. At the 
landscape level, tree mortality was one-third of the 
gross growth of live trees, which is a proxy for the total 



productivity of the forest from 1995 to 2003. It is difficult 
to compare data from different periods, but the estimate 
of mortality likely was about half of gross growth from 
1983 to 1995. Currently, stands at risk of impending 
mortality represent a prime opportunity to capture live 
volume and thus maximize stand productivity. 

The overall average rate of mortality for the recent 
inventory period was 1.2 percent of the volume of live 
trees. Comparing this to rates for the major species/species 
groups allows a relative assessment. As expected, softwood 
mortality was above average (Fig. 85). Mortality of balsam 
fir, beech, paper birch, and aspen was above average 
mortality (Fig. 86). Mortality of red spruce roughly 
equaled the state average. Important species with below 



64 



Western 




All Species Balsam Fir Spruces Northern White-Cedar 




Figure 87. — Distribution of mortality expressed as a percentage of basal area per acre of forest land, Maine, 2003. 



average mortality were white pine, yellow birch, northern 
white-cedar, red maple, and northern red oak. 

The spatial distribution of mortality shows a random 
patchy pattern across Maine (Fig. 87). Balsam fir 



mortality is prevalent across the Central region of the 
State. This appears to be a major shift from mortality 
that was concentrated in northern Maine between 1982 
and 1995 (Mc Williams and others 1997). Other species 
display more sporadic patterns. 



65 



Timber Products Output 

The MFS has records and sources of timber 
products output that date to the early 1900's. 
These records reflect the harvest of sawlog 
and pulpwood products for softwoods and 
hardwoods. The history of Maine's product 
output for the past century centers on two 
major production events. The first, a buildup 
of production, lasted through the first decade 
of the 1900's (Fig. 88). Overall production 
peaked in 1909. This was followed by a 
collapse that reached a low point in the early 
1930s due to a combination of the negative 
impact of the spruce budworm outbreak in the 1910-20 era and reduced demand associated with 
the Great Depression. Production then increased in three steeply cascading surges, each of which 
was followed by a brief period of level production. 

Softwood products, primarily pulpwood, dominate all the major trends in product output (Fig. 
89). Production of softwood pulpwood peaked at 2.3 million cords in 1984. This was followed 
by a precipitous decline that continues today. Beginning in the early 1950s, hardwood pulpwood 
increased steadily until it exceeded softwood production in 1991. The production mix has been 
roughly two-thirds hardwood and one-third softwood over the last 5 years. 

The history of sawlog production reveals more dramatic reversals in periodic production that 
were driven primarily by three declines in softwood production: from 1910 to 1930, 1950 to 

7,000,000 - 
6,000,000 I 
5,000,000 - 
4,000,000 - 

CO 
O 

u 

3,000,000 - 

2,000,000 - 

II 

1,000,000 - 


1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 

Figure 88. — Annual total harvest (pulpwood and sawlogs), Maine (1870 - 2002), displayed as a trailing 
5-year average. 

66 





4,000,000 



3,500,000 



3,000,000 



2,500,000 



2,000,000 



1,500,000 



1,000,000 



500,000 



■Total Pulpwood 
-Softwood Pulpwood 
Hardwood Pulpwood 




1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 

Figure 89. — Reported pulpwood harvest volumes (cords), by major species, for Maine (1899 - 2002), 
displayed as a trailing 5 year average, 2003. 



1,600,000 



1,400,000 



1,200,000 



a 1,000,000 



? 800,000 



600,000 



400,000 



200,000 







■ Total Sawlogs 
— □ — Softwood Sawlogs 
Hardwood Sawlogs 










□ 1 

: 




• • 






• 


/ - - 

■ 



1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 

Figure 90. — Reported sawlog harvest volumes (Mbf), by major species group, for Maine (1870 - 2002), 
displayed as a trailing 5 year average, 2003. 



1960, and 1975 to 1985 (Fig. 90). Trends in sawlog 
output are heavily weighted toward the production of 
softwood sawlogs. Hardwood sawlog production began 



to grow in the 1950s and has increased steadily since 
then. Hardwood sawlogs have contributed more than 20 
percent of total sawlog production during the past 5 years. 



67 



Forest Health Parameters 

The national Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program 
was first initiated in New England in 1990 (Brooks and 
others 1992) in response to increasing concern for the 
health of the Nation's forests with respect to pollution, 
insects, diseases, climate change, and other stressors. The 
objective of the FHM program is to monitor, assess, and 
report on the long-term status, changes, and trends in 
forest-health indicators at regional and national scales. 

Measurements of FHM indicators are taken in addition 
to the basic tree measurements collected on Phase 2 
plots that are coincident with Phase 3 plots. Indicators 
are defined as any environmental component that 
quantitatively estimates the condition or change in the 
condition of ecological resources, the magnitude of stress, 
or the exposure of a biological component to stress. The 
FHM indicators addressed in this report are tree damage, 
crown condition, down woody material, ground-level 
ozone injury, lichens, and vegetation. The data-collection 
method for each indicator is described briefly in each 
section. The data presented here represent P3 plots that 
were surveyed at some time in the 1999-2003 period. 

68 



Tree Damage 

Tree damage and the severity of that damage are assessed for 
trees at least 1 inch in diameter. As many as three damages 
can be recorded per tree in the following order: roots, 
roots and lower bole, lower bole, lower and upper bole, 
upper bole, crown, stem, and branches (USDA For. Serv. 
2002a). The types of damage that are recorded include 
cankers, decay, wounds, resinosis, cracks, broken bole or 
roots, brooms, dead roots, vines, dead terminal, dead or 
broken branches, excessive branching, damaged foliage, and 
discoloration of foliage. Decay is the most common type of 
damage encountered. All trees with a damage recorded were 
considered damaged regardless of location or severity. 

A map of the percentage of total basal area at each plot with 
damage is shown for selected species in Figure 91. For a 
given species, plots were included only if at least three trees 
were sampled. The spatial distributions of damage appear 
to be random for most species. Beech had the highest 
proportion of plots (71 percent) showing substantial 
damage. Most of this damage likely is due to the effects 
of beech bark disease and severe drought. In general, the 
frequency of substantial damage was much higher for 
hardwoods than for softwoods. 



White Pine 



Spruces 




Figure 91. — Tree damage recorded on Phase 2 samples for selected species, Maine, 2003. 



Crown Condition 

Each measurement of crown condition contains 
information that can be used individually or in 
combination with other measurements. Tree-level 
measurements include vigor class, crown ratio, light 
exposure, crown position, crown density, crown dieback, 
and foliage transparency Factors used to determine 
the condition of tree crowns are crown dieback, crown 
density, and foliage transparency. Crown dieback is 
recent mortality of branches with fine twigs and reflects 
the severity of recent stresses on a tree. Crown density is 
defined as the amount of crown branches, foliage, and 
reproductive structures that block light visibility through 
the crown. Crown density can serve as an indicator of 
expected growth in the near future. Foliage transparency 
is the amount of skylight visible through the live, 
normally foliated portion of the crown. Changes in foliage 
transparency also can occur due to defoliation or from 
reduced foliage resulting from stresses in preceding years. 
A crown was labeled as poor if crown dieback exceeded 20 
percent, crown density was less than 35 percent, or foliage 
transparency was greater than 35 percent. These thresholds 
were based on preliminary findings by Steinman (2000) 
that associated crown ratings with tree mortality. 

The percentage of basal area with poor crowns is shown 
for selected species in Figure 92. The incidence of poor 
crowns was highest in beech and aspen. Nearly 65 percent 
of the plots had more than 1 percent basal area with poor 
crowns. Poor beech crowns would be expected in light 
of other findings and because the foliage of trees infected 
with beech bark disease often become sparse (Le Guerrier 
2003). Since aspen is relatively short lived (Laidly 1990; 
Perala 1990), crowns may be poor in trees nearing the end 
of their normal lifespan. For white pine and balsam fir, 
nearly 21 percent of the plots had more than 10 percent 
basal area with poor crowns. Conversely, relatively few 
sugar maple and spruce species had poor crowns. 

Ground-Level Ozone Injury 

Ozone (0 3 ) is a byproduct of industrial development 
and is found in the lower atmosphere. It forms when 
nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds react in 
the presence of sunlight (Brace and others 1999). Ground- 
level 3 has been known to have a detrimental effect on 
forest ecosystems. Certain plant species exhibit visible, 



Table 22. — Distribution of plants sampled 
for ozone injury by species, Maine, 2003 



Species Percent 



Dogbane 


28 


Milkweed 


27 


Blackberry 


22 


White ash 


8 


Pin cherry 


8 


Black cherry 


6 


Aster 


1 



easily diagnosed foliar symptoms. } stress in a forest 
environment can be detected and monitored by using 
these plants as indicators. In the FHM program, these 
indicator plants monitor changes in air quality across a 
region and are used to evaluate the relationship between 
O air quality and the indicators of forest condition 
(USDA For. Serv. 2002b). 

The 3 -induced foliar injury on indicator plants is 
used to describe the risk of impact within the forest 
environment using a national system of sites (Smith and 
others 2003). These sites are not co-located with FIA 
samples. ? plots are chosen for ease of access and optimal 
size, species, and plant counts. As such, the plots do not 
have set boundaries and vary in size. At each plot, 10 to 
30 individual plants of three or more indicator species 
are evaluated for O injury (Table 22). Each plant is rated 
for the proportion of leaves with O injury and the mean 
severity of symptoms using break points that correspond 
to the human eye's ability to distinguish differences. An 
index is calculated based on amount and severity ratings. 
The findings for Maine indicate that there is little or no 
risk of foliar injury due to O across the entire State (Table 
23). By contrast, portions of the Mid- Atlantic region are 
at medium or high risk (Coulston and others 2003). 

Table 23. — FIA P3 plots and plant specimens 
examined for ozone injury, Maine, 2003 

Year Number Number Number of 





of plots 


of plants 


injured plants 


1999 


24 


1070 





2000 


19 


799 





2001 


22 


940 





2002 


16 


1611 





2003 


18 


1539 






70 



White Pine 




Percent Basal Area 
with Poor Crowns 

• 

O 0- 15 
O 15-30 
30-50 

• 50-82 

| Nonforest 
■ Water 



Percent Basal Area 
with Poor Crowns 

• 

o 0-10 

O 10-15 
15-30 

• 30-43 

| Nonforest 
B Water 



Figure 92. — Crown conditions recorded on Phase 3 samples for selected species, Maine, 2003. 



71 



Lichens 

Lichens are composite, symbiotic organisms from 
as many as three kingdoms. The dominant partner 
is a fungus. Fungi can produce their own food as 
parasites or decomposers. The lichen fungi (kingdom 
Fungi) cultivate partners that manufacture food 
by photosynthesis. At times, the partners are algae 
(kingdom Protista) or cyanobacteria (kingdom Monera), 
formerly called blue-green algae. Some enterprising 
fungi exploit both at once (Brodo and others 2001). 

Monitoring of the lichen community was included 
in the FHM process to address key issues such as the 
impact of air pollution on forest resources, and spatial 
and temporal trends in biodiversity. This long-term 
monitoring program in the United States dates to 
1994 and is currently implemented in 32 states. The 
objectives of the lichen indicator are to determine the 
presence and abundance of lichen species on woody 
plants and collect samples. Lichens are found on many 
substrates, e.g., rocks, though sampling was restricted 
to standing trees or branches/twigs that recently fell to 
the ground. The samples were sent to lichen experts for 
species identification. 

There is a close relationship between lichen 
communities and air pollution, particularly sulfur 
dioxide and acidifying or fertilizing nitrogen- and 
sulfur-based pollutants. Lichens are highly sensitive to 
air quality because they rely on atmospheric sources of 
nutrition. By contrast, it is difficult to separate tree- 
growth responses specific to air pollution (McCune 
2000). 

In all, 149 lichen species in 42 genera were sampled 
on Phase 3 plots (1999-2003) (Table 24). The most 
common lichen genera, Parmelia and Usnea, were on 1 
percent of the plots. The genera with the most species 
sampled were Cladonia (22 species) and Usnea (16). 

Species diversity is a combination of the number of 
species (species richness) in an area and the distribution 
of individuals among species (eveness). The distribution 
of species richness for lichens and associated diversity 
are shown in Figure 93. In general, species richness and 



Table 24. — Percentage of specimens and number of 
species for lichen genera sampled, Maine, 2003 



Genus All specimens All species 

Parmelia 11.4 5 

Usnea 9.7 16 

Hypogymnia 9.3 3 

Cetraria 8.9 8 

Melanelia 6.7 7 

Cladonia 6.1 22 

Evernia 5.3 1 

Bryoria 5.0 6 

Platismatia 5.0 2 

Lobaria 4.6 2 

Phaeophyscia 3.9 5 

Punctelia 3.9 3 

Myelochroa 3.3 2 

Flavoparmelia 2.3 2 

Physcia 2.1 4 

Ramalina 2.1 

Imshaugia 1.5 1 

Leptogium 1.3 8 

Pyxine 1.2 1 

Parmeliopsis 1.2 3 

Cetrelia 0.9 2 

Physconia 0.7 2 

Collema 0.6 2 

Menegazzia 0.5 1 

Candelaria 0.4 2 

Xanthoria 0.3 2 

Pseudocyphellaria 0.3 2 

Anaptychia 0.3 1 

Heterodermia 0.2 1 

Pannaria 0.2 3 

Parmeliella 0.1 5 

Peltigera 0.1 3 

Nephroma 0.1 2 

Parmotrema 0.1 2 

Alectoria 0.1 1 

Cladina 0.1 1 

Hypotrachyna 0.1 1 

Pseudevernia 0.0 2 

Sticta 0.0 2 

Everniastrum 0.0 1 

Fuscopannaria 0.0 2 

Vulpicida 0.0 1 

Total 100.0 149 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to rounding. 



72 



Lichen Species 



Lichen Diversity Index 




Figure 93. — Number of lichen species and lichen diversity index, Maine, 2003. 



diversity are higher in the northern half of Maine. This 
is a function of the spatial distribution of forest-type 
groups in the State. Mean species richness of the spruce/ 
fir forest-type group that makes up most of Maine's 
northern forest is higher than the type groups that make 
up the forests in Southern region (Table 25). Lichen 
species richness is similar among stand-diameter classes 
(Table 26). The mean number of lichen species sampled 
was lowest on large sawtimber plots and highest on small 
sawtimber-size plots. 



Some lichen species are more apt to be found in late- 
successional and old-growth (LSOG) forests. Thus, 
they can be used as an indicator of LSOG stands (Selva 
1994). The spatial distribution of LSOG lichen species 
richness is shown in Figure 94. Areas with high numbers 
of LSOG lichen species exhibit some correspondence 
to areas with high numbers of trees at least 16.0 inches 
d.b.h. (Fig. 95). Existing research has shown that forest 
land with significant numbers of trees 16.0 inches are 
likely candidates for classification as LSOG (Whitman 



Table 25. — Number of FIA P3 plots and richness 
and diversity of lichen species by forest-type 
group, Maine, 2003 



Forest-type group Plots Richness Diversity 



Spruce/fir 


96 


21.2 


2.87 


Maple/beech/birch 


61 


19.2 


2.76 


Aspen/birch 


15 


16.5 


2.5 


White pine/hemlock 


19 


15.7 


2.57 



Table 26. — Number of FIA P3 plots and richness and 
diversity of lichen species by stand-diameter class 



Stand-diameter class 


Plots 


Richness 


Diversity 


Sapling 


48 


19.56 


2.77 


Poletimber 


87 


19.49 


2.8 


Small sawtimber 


36 


20.83 


2.92 


Large sawtimber 


23 


17.91 


2.73 



73 



and Hagan 2004). The twenty-five LSOG lichen species 
sampled in Maine included: 



Alectoria sarmentosa 
Anaptychia palmulata 
Collema nigrescens 
Collema subflaccidum 
Heterodermia speciosa 
Hypogymnia tabulosa 
Leptogium burnetiae 
Leptogium corticola 
Leptogium cyanescens 
Leptogium laceroides 
Leptogium lichenoides 
Leptogium miligranum 
Leptogium saturninum 



Leptogium tenuissimum 
Lobaria pulmonaria 
Lobaria quercizans 
Menegazzia terebrata 
Myelochroa aurulenta 
Nephroma helveticum 
Nephroma resuptinatum 
Pseudocyphellaria aurata 
Pseudocyphellaria crocata 
Pyxine sorediata 
Ramalina thrausta 
Usnea longissmia 



Soil Erosion 

In general, Maine's forests are associated with low levels 
of erosion. None of the samples in the four megaregions 
showed evidence of soil erosion. Preventive forces, such 
as forest cover, an evenly distributed precipitation regime, 
and large areas with low slopes account for the State's 
low erosion levels. This does not mean that management 
practices should ignore erosion potential as steeper slopes, 
compacted areas, and lack of vegetation foster erosion. 




Richness 



Figure 94. — Number of late-successional lichen species, 
Maine, 2003. 



Softwoods 



Hardwoods 



All Species 






Figure 95— Estimated number of trees per acre larger than 16.0 inches in diameter at breast height, Maine, 2003. 



74 



Vegetation Diversity and Structure 

The objectives of the vegetation indicator are to assess 
forest ecosystem health with respect to diversity, 
abundance, and rate of change of native and nonnative 
vascular plant species, and the vertical layering of 
vegetation within a forest (Stapanian and others 1998). 
Chronic stressors like discrete site degradation, climate 
change, and pollution can change the composition 
of species and lead to the decline or local eradication 



of sensitive species, as well as increase the number of 
opportunistic species such as weedy nonnative plants. The 
abundance and layering of vegetation is a good predictor 
of wildlife habitat and the severity of damage that might 
develop when fire occurs. In addition, individual species 
are important indicators of a site's potential productivity, 
economic value, and wildlife forage and shelter (USDA 
For. Serv. 2002b). In Maine, data collection for the 
vegetation indicator is scheduled to begin in FY2006. 



Web Resources 

USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station FIA: 

http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/fia/ 
USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory Mapmaker: 

http://ncrs2.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/index.htm 
USDA Forest Service, National Woodland Ownership Survey: 

http://www.fs.fed.us/woodlandowners 
Maine Department of Conservation, Maine Forest Service: 

http://www.state.me.us/doc/mfs/mfshome.htm 
Department of Maine Inland Fish and Wildlife: 

http ://www.state. me. us/ifw/index.html 
University of Maine, College of Natural Sciences, Forestry and Agriculture: 

http://www.nsfa.umaine.edu/ 
Maine Audubon: 

http ://www. maineaudubon. org/ conserve/ index, shtml 
Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences: 

http : //www. manomet. org/ 
Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium: 

http://www.mrlc.gov/index.asp 
U.S. Census Bureau: 

http://www.census.gov/ 
U.S. Department of the Interior Geological Survey: 

h ttp : // www. usgs . gov/ 
USDA National Resource Conservation Service: 

http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/ 



75 



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North Central Research Station. 1 90 p. 

Smith, G.; Coulston, J.; Jepsen, E.; Pritchard, T. 2003. 
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Monitoring and Assessment. 87: 271-291. 

Solomon, D.S.; Hosmer, R.A.; Hayslett, H.T., Jr. 1987. 
FIBER handbook: a growth model for spruce-fir 
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602. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 



Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 
19 p. 

Solomon, D.S.; Herman, D.A.; Leak, W.B. 1995. FIBER 
3.0: an ecological growth model for northeastern 
forest types. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-204. Radnor, 
PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 24 p. 

Stapanian, M.A.; Sundberg, S.D.; Baumgardner, G.A.; 
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U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North 
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Stout, S.L.; Nyland, R.D. 1986. Role of species 
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Trial, H., Jr. 1989. Spruce budworm in Maine: the end 
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Turner, R.J.; Caldwell, L.E. 2001. A forest resource 
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U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 2002a. 
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U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 2002b. 
Forest inventory and analysis national core field 



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guide, volume 2: field data collection procedures 
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www.fs.fed.us/ne/rla/ 

Vogelman, J.E.; Howard, S.M.; Yang, L.; Larson, C.R.; 
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Watermolen, J. 2002. l:2,000,000-scale hydrologic 
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Public Garden 10(3): 18-20. 



79 



Appendix 



Annual Inventory Design 

The annual inventory system combines features of the 
periodic system with a new systematic grid of sample 
plots and incorporates measurements from the FHM 
program. The inventory consists of three phases. 

Phase 1 

Phase 1 procedures reduce variance associated with 
estimates of forest-land area. A statistical estimation 
technique is used to classify digital satellite imagery and 
stratify the land base as forest or nonforest to assign a 
representative acreage to each sample plot. Source data 
are from Landsat Thematic Mapper (30-m resolution) 
imagery that ranged from 1999 to 2001. An image 
filtering technique is used to classify individual pixels 
using the 5- by 5-pixel region that surrounds each 
pixel that contains the sample plot. The resulting 26 
classes are collapsed for each estimation unit (county 
or supercounty; the latter is a combination of small 



counties). Stratified estimation is applied by assigning 
each plot to one of these collapsed strata and by 
calculating the area of each collapsed stratum in each 
estimation unit. Stratified estimation produces more 
precise estimates than simple random sampling. 

Phase 2 

Field measurements are conducted at sample locations 
distributed systematically about every 3 miles across 
the landscape. Sample locations are situated within 
individual cells of a national hexagonal grid laid across 
the State of Maine. Each Phase 2 sample represents about 
6,000 acres depending on the Phase 1 stratification of 
forest land. The new national design also incorporates 
a change to a four-subplot cluster (USDA For. Serv. 
2002a). At each location, a suite of variables is measured 
that characterizes the land and trees associated with the 
sample (Fig. 96). Each year, 20 percent of the sample 
locations are measured, that is, it takes 5 years to 




complete the inventory. Each year's sample is referred to 
as an "inventory panel." The overall design is referred to 
as an "interpenetrating design" because no two cells are 
adjacent to one another within each inventory panel. As 
a result, each panel provides an unbiased representation 
of conditions across the State. Each completed panel 
is combined with existing panels to produce the most 
precise estimates possible. This report is based on the 
first five panels measured in Maine using the new 
annual inventory protocols. After the next panel is 
complete, the set of panels used for estimation "moves" 
to the most recent five panels (2nd through 6th year). 
The moving average approach ensures that the most 
current and complete inventory data are used. 

Phase 3 

More extensive forest-health measurements are collected 
during a 10-week period in summer on a subset of 
Phase 2 sample locations. The measurements are 
grouped into six general categories of indicators: crown 
condition, understory vegetation, down woody material, 
soil condition, lichen communities, and ozone damage. 
The intensity of the Phase 3 sample is one sample 
location per 96,000 acres of land. The relatively small 
number of Phase 3 samples does not provide detailed 
analyses in some cases. For example, breaking down 
tree damage for a particular species by region reduces 
the number of samples and yields a high sampling error 
(SE). 

Ensuring Consistency with Previous 
Inventories 

Compiling and reporting results for the first five panels 
of the annual inventory required additional work to 
ensure comparisons were valid in light of changing 
procedures, definitions, and estimation methods. Three 
areas of concern were addressed for the 1982 and 1995 
inventories because existing digital inventory data could 
be recompiled to current standards. Comparisons to 
published inventory information prior to 1982 should 
be used with caution to ensure valid comparisons. 

The first concern involved consistency in the estimate of 
total forest land in Maine. In previous annual reports, 
analyses were limited to the timberland portion of the 
forest-land base. This approach has adequately addressed 



wood-supply issues, but more holistic analyses cover the 
entire forest-land base. This has required incorporating 
"other forest land" in a consistent manner for the 
previous two periodic inventories. 

Also, as part of the nationalization of the FIA program, 
all statistical estimation and compilation systems are 
being reviewed for consistency among regional FIA 
units. The intent is to have a national system with 
comparable data and information across state and 
regional boundaries. This resulted in modifications 
to the procedures and algorithms for compiling data 
on stocking, forest type, and stand-size class that were 
used in development of information for this report. 
The algorithm used to classify these variables has 
undergone significant modifications, so estimates in 
older publications are not comparable with current 
ones. To overcome this limitation, the latest national 
approach was used to recompute stocking, forest type, 
and stand-size class for the current and two most recent 
inventories. Comparisons of these variables now can 
be analyzed using a temporally consistent classification 
system (Appendix Tables A2, A3, A28, A31, A32, A35, 
A36, A37, A38, A39, B3, B4, B14, C3, C4, and C14). 
A supplemental approach for developing forest-habitat 
types was implemented because this variable is preferred 
as a measure of composition in Maine (see Gadzik and 
others 1998). A more detailed measure of stand-size 
class— stand-diameter class— was developed to divide the 
sawtimber class into small and large sizes. Also, stocking 
levels were assigned using the FIBER model (see 
Definition of Terms). 

The third concern involved the estimation of individual 
tree volumes that are used to develop trend data for 
inventory volume. Due to continuing difficulties in 
estimating tree bole and sawlog lengths over time, a 
procedure that predicts previous merchantable lengths 
by assigning an average length by species group and 
diameter class has been used in the past. An improved 
procedure that uses nonlinear regression were developed 
(Westfall and Laustsen, in press). New tree-section 
lengths have been used to recompute all individual 
tree volumes for the 1982 and 1995 inventories. These 
new estimates improve the ability to estimate change 



81 



components (net growth, removals, and mortality), but 
does not solve the problematic lack of remeasurement 
of all sample locations and trees in the sample during 
the first 5-year inventory cycle. When the new sample 
grid was put in place, half of the sample locations were 
new. On the roughly 50 percent of sample locations 
that were remeasured, only trees on the central 24-foot, 
circular-radius fixed plot centered over the previously 
used 52.7-foot, circular-radius fixed plot (1/5 acre) 
were remeasured. Thus, only 12-percent of the sample 
trees measured in 1995 were remeasured in the first 
5-year cycle. During the second cycle of inventory 
measurements, all sample locations and trees will be 
remeasured on forested samples. It is interesting to 
note that the first panel to be remeasured will capture 
a remeasured sample of trees that exceeds the entire 
first 5 years. As a result, the second cycle of inventory 
is expected to provide consistency between change in 
inventory volume and the net difference between net 
growth and removals estimates. 

To overcome inconsistencies in previous publications, 
all of the 1982 and 1995 data have been recompiled to 
current standards. A set of reconciled tables is included in 
the Appendix. 

Statistical Significance 

This report contains a wealth of statistical estimates that 
are compared over time and among numerous variables. 
Changes in estimates are discussed in terms of direction 
and magnitude. In most cases, mention of "significant" 
changes are based on comparing 67-percent confidence 
intervals for the various estimates. If confidence intervals 
overlap, there has been no real change in a statistical 
sense. When confidence intervals do not overlap, 
significant change has occurred. This approach was 
used throughout the report, though no attempt was 
made to include all of the statistical tests of significance. 
Sampling errors are provided in the Appendix Tables. To 
approximate 95-percent confidence intervals, multiply 
the SE's by 2. 

Benefits: More Rapid and Complete 
Resource Analyses 

Perhaps the most salient benefit of the new inventory 
system will be the nearly threefold improvement in 



timeliness. A complete new inventory will be available at 
the end of each 5-year cycle with updates on conditions 
available yearly. The installation of a single remeasured 
sample design across the State will greatly improve the 
quality of information on change in resource extent, 
status, and condition. The use of this national sample 
design will facilitate resource assessments that straddle 
traditional regional and state boundaries to include 
Maine's results within the New England region, as well as 
national and international assessments. The FLA website 
can be used to download data and make specific tabular 
queries for any state in the Nation: http://ncrs2.fs.fed. 
us/480 1/fiadb/index.htm. 

The extension of the sample to include a broader range 
of measurements will help analysts better understand the 
relationships between resource change and underlying 
ecological variables. The implementation of a suite 
of forest health variables (Phase 3) will foster a more 
complete understanding of conditions on Phase 2 plots. 

The hiring of permanent field crews is a significant 
advantage over the use of temporary crews. Under the 
new design, crew members are visiting sample locations 
within their region year after year, enhancing their ability 
to locate samples, obtain permission from landowners, 
identify local species, evaluate tree quality, understand 
forest composition and management activities, and 
measure the forces affecting resource change in their 
region. 

Although not a direct benefit of the annual inventory, 
new developments in geospatial analysis allow the use 
of the FLA grid samples to produce spatial surfaces that 
represent indicators of interest in Maine. A suite of 
mapped products is presented. The mapped surfaces were 
developed using modeling techniques or, in some cases, a 
simple display of sample locations. In the case of kriging 
and other modeling, the Phase 1 forest-land base map is 
used to highlight variables of interest on 30-m pixels. The 
techniques selected take the best advantage of the spatial 
variability of the FLA data. Each approach provides a 
"mapped surface" that expresses this variability for the 
variable of interest. The intent of these products is not 
attempt to actually map each 30-m pixel but to display 



82 



the area according to confidence of occurrence classes 
based on the FIA samples. One concern is determining 
how many sample plots are needed to provide a 
reasonable depiction of the spatial variability. In many 
cases, the FIA data are rich enough to utilize kriging. 



Another issue involves the neighbor-search routines uso 
by kriging and the caution of displaying averages that 
reflect a wide range of values. For example, high basal- 
area plots that are averaged with low basal-area plots 
result in medium values assigned to pixels. 



Definition of Terms 

Accretion . The estimated net growth on trees that were 
measured during the previous inventory (divided by the 
number of growing seasons between surveys to produce 
average annual accretion). It does not include the growth 
on trees that were cut during the period, nor those trees 
that died. This component uses the incremental change 
in volume between two inventories. 

Basal area . The cross-sectional area of a tree stem at breast 
height, expressed in square feet. 

Board foot . A unit of lumber measurement 1 foot 
long, 1 foot wide, and 1 inch thick, or its equivalent. 
International l A inch rule is used as the US DA Forest 
Service standard log rule in the Eastern United States. 

Commercial species . Tree species currently or 
prospectively suitable for industrial wood products; 
excludes species of typically small size, poor form, or 
inferior quality, e.g., hawthorn and sumac. 

Condition . A delineation of a land area based on land 
use, forest type, stand size, regeneration status, reserved 
status, tree density, and owner class. 

Cropland . Land that currently supports agricultural 
crops including silage and feed grains, bare farm fields 
resulting from cultivation or harvest, and maintained 
orchards. Includes cropland used for cover crops and soil 
improvement. 

Cull decrement . The net volume of rough or rotten 
trees in the previous inventory that are classified as 
growing-stock trees in the current inventory (divided by 
the number of growing seasons between inventories to 
compute average annual cull decrement) . 

Cull increment . The net volume of growing-stock trees 
in the previous inventory that are classified as rough 
or rotten trees in the current inventory (divided by 
the number of growing seasons between inventories to 
compute average annual cull increment). 

Cull tree . A rough tree or a rotten tree. 



Diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) . The diameter outside 
bark of a standing tree measured at 4-1/2 feet above the 
ground. 

Dry ton . A unit of measure of dry weight equivalent to 
2,000 pounds or 907.1848 kilograms. 

Dry weight . The weight of wood and bark as it would be 
if it had been oven dried; usually expressed in pounds or 
tons. 

Forest land . Land that is at least 10 percent stocked with 
trees of any size, or that formerly had such tree cover 
and is not currently developed for a nonforest use. The 
minimum area for classification of forest land is 1 acre. 
The components that make up forest land are timberland 
and all noncommercial forest land. 

Forest type . A classification of forest land based on the 
species that form a plurality of live-tree stocking. 

Forest-type group . A combination of forest types that 
share closely associated species or site requirements are 
combined into forest-type groups. 

Gross growth . The sum of accretion and ingrowth. 

Growing-stock trees . Live trees of commercial species 
classified as sawtimber, or poletimber; that is, all live trees 
of commercial species except rough and rotten trees. 

Growing-stock volume . Net volume, in cubic feet, of 
growing-stock trees 5.0 inches and larger d.b.h. in from 
a 1-foot stump to a minimum 4.0-inch top diameter 
outside the bark of the central stem, or to the point 
where the central stem breaks into limbs. Net volume 
equals gross volume less deduction for cull. 

Habitat type . A classification of forest land that uses 
existing trees to classify conditions according to "potential 
natural" tree communities. These ecological habitat types 
are intended to describe communities that are stable 
over time as opposed to traditional FIA forest types that 
describe only the existing vegetation. The FIBER model 
is used to classify sample plot conditions using habitats 



84 



that are determined by soil-site relationships that change 
slowly (Solomon and others 1995; Leak 1982). Habitat 
types used for Maine are beech/ red maple, cedar/black 
spruce, hemlock/ red spruce, oak/white pine, spruce/fir, 
and sugar maple/ash. 

Harvest disturbance . 

a) Partial harvest . Harvest by which trees are removed 
individually or in small patches (fewer than 5 acres in 
size), sometimes referred to as selection cutting. 

b) Shelterwood . Harvest of mature trees from a forest 
site in two or more stages. The first stage removes 
only a portion of the trees to allow establishment of 
regeneration before the remaining trees are removed in 
a subsequent harvest. 

c) Clearcut . Harvest on a site more than 5 acres in 
size that results in a residual basal area of acceptable 
growing-stock trees more than 4.5-inches d.b.h. and 
less than 30 square feet per acre, unless after harvesting 
the site has a well-distributed stand of acceptable 
growing-stock trees at least 3.0 and 5.0 feet tall for 
softwoods and hardwoods, respectively. 

d) Change of land use . Harvest conducted to convert 
forest land to another land use, such as house lots, farm 
pastures, and other uses. 

Hardwoods . Dicotyledonous trees, usually broad-leaved 
and deciduous. 

Ingrowth . The estimated net volume of trees that became 
5.0 inches or larger in d.b.h. during the period between 
inventories (divided by the number of growing seasons 
between surveys to produce average annual ingrowth). 
Also, the estimated net volume of trees 5.0 inches 
and larger in d.b.h. that are growing on land that was 
reclassified from noncommercial forest land or nonforest 
land to timberland. 

International 1/4-inch rule . A log rule or formula 
for estimating the board-foot volume of logs. The 
mathematical formula is: 

Board-foot volume = (0.22D2 - 0.71D)(0.904762) 

for 4-foot sections, where D = diameter inside bark at 
the small end of the log section. This rule is used as the 



USDA Forest Service standard log rule in the Eastern 
United States. 

Land area , (a) Bureau of Census: The area of dry land 
and land temporarily or partly covered by water, such 
as marshes, swamps, and river flood plains; streams, 
sloughs, estuaries, and canals less than 200 feet wide; and 
lakes, reservoirs, and ponds less than 4.5 acres in area; 
(b) Forest Inventory and Analysis: same as (a) except that 
the minimum width of streams, etc. is 120 feet, and the 
minimum size of lakes, etc. is 1 acre. 

Land use . A classification of land that indicates the 
primary use at the time of inventory. Major categories are 
forest land and nonforest land. 

Live tree . Growing-stock, rough, and rotten trees of 
any size. Live trees at least 1.0 inch d.b.h. and larger are 
commonly referred to. 

Merchantable stem . The main stem of the tree between a 
1-foot stump height and a 4-inch top diameter (outside 
the bark), including the wood and bark. 

Mortality . The estimated net volume of trees at the 
previous inventory that died from natural causes before 
the current inventory (divided by the number of growing 
seasons between surveys to produce average annual 
mortality). 

Net change . The difference between the current and 
previous inventory estimates of volume (divided by the 
number of growing seasons between surveys to produce 
average annual net change). Components of net change 
are ingrowth plus accretion, minus mortality, minus cull 
increment, plus cull decrement, minus removals. 

Net dry weight . The dry weight of woody material less 
the weight of all unsound (rotten) material. 

Net growth . The change, resulting from natural causes, 
in volume during the period between surveys (divided 
by the number of growing seasons to produce average 
annual net growth). Components of net growth are 
ingrowth plus accretion, minus mortality, minus cull 
increment, plus cull decrement. 



85 



Noncensus water . Streams/rivers 120 to 200 feet wide 
and bodies of water 1 to 4.5 acres in size. The Bureau of 
the Census classifies such water as land. 

Noncommercial species . Tree of typically small size, poor 
form, or inferior quality that usually are unsuitable for 
industrial wood products. 

Nonforest land . Land that has never supported forests, 
or land formerly forested but now in nonforest use, e.g., 
cropland, pasture, residential areas, marshes, swamps, 
highways, industrial or commercial sites, or noncensus 
water. 

Nonsafvable dead tree . A dead tree with most or all of its 
bark missing that is at least 5.0 inches d.b.h. and at least 
4.5 feet tall. 

Nonstocked area . A stand-size class of forest land that is 
less than 10 percent stocked with live trees. 

Owner class . A classification land into categories of 
ownership: 

a) Forest industry . Land owned by companies or 
individuals that operate wood-using plants. 

b) Nonindustrial private . Land owned by companies, 
nongovernmental organizations (such as timber 
investment management organizations), or individuals 
that do not operate wood-using plants. 

c) Public . Land owned by federal, state, municipal, or 
county government. 

Pasture land . Includes pasture land other than cropland 
and woodland pasture. It can include lands that have had 
lime fertilizer or seed applied, or that had been improved 
by irrigation, drainage, or control of weeds and brush. 

Poletimber stand . A stand-size class of forest land that is 
at least 1 percent stocked with live trees of which half 
or more of such stocking is in poletimber or sawtimber 
trees, or both, and in which the stocking of poletimber 
exceeds that of sawtimber. This term also applies to the 
stand-diameter class variable that is based on basal area 
per acre. 



Poletimber tree . A live tree of commercial species meeting 
regional specifications of soundness and form and at least 
5.0 inches in d.b.h. but smaller than a sawtimber tree (9.0 
inches d.b.h. for softwoods and 11.0 inches d.b.h. for 
hardwoods). 

Potential sawtimber tree (sawlog quality) . A commercial 
tree species that is field coded as a growing stock tree 
but is below the minimum diameter for sawtimber (9.0 
inches d.b.h. for softwoods and 1 1.0 inches d.b.h. for 
hardwoods) . 

Pulpwood quality tree . A commercial tree species that is 
field coded as a growing-stock tree or as a rough cull tree. 

Relative stand density . A stocking classification procedure 
that reflects species, stage of development, and 
characteristics of the trees present in a stand. 

Removals . The net volume harvested or killed in logging, 
cultural operations (such as timber stand improvement) 
or land clearing, and the net volume neither harvested nor 
killed but now growing on land that was reclassified from 
timberland to noncommercial forest land or nonforest 
land during the period between surveys. This volume is 
divided by the number of growing seasons to produce 
average annual removals. 

Reserved productive forest land . Forest land sufficiently 
productive to qualify as timberland but withdrawn from 
timber utilization through statute or administrative 
designation; land exclusively used for Christmas tree 
production. 

Rotten tree . A live tree of commercial species that does not 
contain at least one 12-foot sawlog or two noncontiguous 
sawlogs, each 8 feet or longer, now or prospectively, and 
does not meet regional specifications for freedom from 
defect primarily because of rot; that is, more than 50 
percent of the cull volume in the tree is rotten. 

Rough tree . The same as a rotten tree except that a rough 
tree does not meet regional specifications for freedom 
from defect primarily because of roughness or poor form; 
also a live tree of noncommercial species. 



86 



Salvable dead tree . A tree at least 5.0 inches d.b.h. that has 
died recently and still has intact bark; may be standing, 
fallen, windthrown, knocked down, or broken off. 

Sampling error . A measure of the reliability of an estimate, 
expressed as a percentage of the estimate. The sampling 
errors given in this report correspond to one standard 
error and are calculated as the square root of the variance, 
divided by the estimate, and multiplied by 100. Indicated 
in statistical tables as "SE." 

Sapling . All live trees 1.0 to 4.9 inches d.b.h. 

Sapling stand . A stand-diameter class of forest land that 
is at least 1 percent stocked with live trees where half or 
more of the basal area per acre is in saplings or seedlings 
or both. 

Sawlog . A log meeting regional standards of diameter, 
length, and freedom from defect, including a minimum 
8-foot length and a minimum top diameter inside bark of 
6 inches for softwoods and 8 inches for hardwoods. (See 
specifications under Tree-Grade Classification.) 

Sawlog portion . That part of the bole of a sawtimber tree 
between the stump and the sawlog top. 

Sawlog top . The point on the bole of a sawtimber tree 
above which a sawlog cannot be produced. The minimum 
sawlog top is 7.0 inches diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) for 
softwoods and 9.0 inches d.o.b. for hardwoods. 

Sawtimber stand . A stand-size class of forest land that is 
at least 10 percent stocked with live trees of which half or 
more of such stocking is in poletimber or sawtimber trees 
or both, and in which the stocking of sawtimber is at least 
equal to that of poletimber. This term also applies to the 
stand-diameter class variable that is based on basal area 
per acre. 

Sawtimber tree . A live tree of commercial species at least 
9.0 inches d.b.h. for softwoods or 1 1.0 inches d.b.h. for 
hardwoods, containing at least one 12-foot sawlog or 
two noncontiguous 8-foot sawlogs, and meeting regional 
specifications for freedom from defect. 



Sawtimber volume . Net volume in board feet, by the 
International 1/4-inch rule, of sawlogs in sawtimber trees. 
Net volume equals gross volume less deductions for rot, 
sweep, and other defects that affect use for lumber. 

SE . See Sampling error. 

Seedling . A live tree at least 1 foot tall but less than 1.0 
inch d.b.h. 

Snag . Standing dead tree with most or all of its bark 
missing that is at least 5.0 inches d.b.h. and at least 4.5 
feet tall (does not include salvable dead). 

Softwoods . Coniferous trees, usually evergreen and 
having needles or scalelike leaves. 

Sound- Wood Volume . Tree volume of the central stem 
from a 1-foot stump to a minimum top diameter outside 
bark or a point where the stem breaks into limbs. Sound 
cull portions are included. Rotten cull portions are 
excluded. Most often expressed in cubic feet for live trees. 

Species Group . Species groups referred to in some tables 
and figures are as follows: 

a) Balsam fir . 

b) Spruces , white spruce, red spruce, and black spruce. 

c) Eastern white pine , eastern white pine 

d) Northern white-cedar . 

e) Hemlock , eastern hemlock 

f ) Other miscellaneous softwoods . These species were 
tallied in 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, or 2003: plantation 
larch, tamarack, Norway spruce, jack pine, red pine, 
pitch pine, and Scotch pine. 

g) Red maple . 

h) Sugar maple/beech/yellow birch , sugar maple, 
American beech, and yellow birch. 

i) Intolerant hardwoods , paper birch, cottonwood 
species, balsam poplar, eastern cottonwood, bigtooth 
aspen, swamp cottonwood, and quaking aspen. 

Other miscellaneous commercial hardwoods . 
These species were tallied in 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 
or 2003: silver maple, black maple, Ohio buckeye, 
birches, shagbark hickory, white ash, black ash, green 



87 



ash, butternut, black cherry, white oak, swamp white 
oak, scarlet oak, northern red oak, black oak, black 
willow, basswood species, American basswood, elm 
species, and American elm. 

k) Noncommercial hardwoods . These species were 
tallied in 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, or 2003: maple 
species, boxelder, striped maple, mountain maple, 
Norway maple, serviceberry, gray birch, American 
hornbeam, hawthorns, apple species, eastern 
hophornbeam, pin cherry, chokecherry, bear/scrub oak, 
willow species, and American mountain-ash. 
1) All unknown species . Tree species that are unknown 
or not listed. 

Stand . A group of forest trees growing on forest land. 

Stand origin . An indication of how the measured stand 
originated: 100 percent natural, 100 percent artificial, or 
a combination of both. 

Stand-diameter class . A classification of forest land based 
on the plurality of basal area per acre of live trees sampled 
on each condition: sapling (1.0 to 4.9 inches d.b.h.), 
poletimber (5.0 to 10.0 inches d.b.h.), small sawtimber 
(10.0 to 14.9 inches d.b.h.), and large sawtimber (15.0 
inches and larger d.b.h.). The classification requires at 
least 5.0 square feet of basal area per acre in trees that are 
in the intermediate, codominant, or dominant crown 
position. Conditions with less than 5.0 square feet are 
classified as low/no basal area. This classification is an 
alternative to the traditional FIA stand-size class and is 
used only for Maine. 

Stand-size class . A classification of forest land based on 
the size class (that is, seedlings, saplings, poletimber, or 
sawtimber) of the stocking of all live trees in the area. 

State lands . Lands owned by the state or leased to the 
state for 50 years or more. 

Stocking . The degree of occupancy of land by trees 
relative to the growth potential utilized by a site. It is 
expressed as a percent of the "normal" value presented 
in yield tables and stocking quides. Two categories of 
stocking are traditionally used in FIA reports: all live 



trees and growing-stock trees. The relationships between 
the classes and the percentage of the stocking standard 
are: nonstocked (0 to 9), poorly stocked (10 to 34), 
moderately stocked (35 to 59), fully stocked (60 to 100), 
and overstocked (100+). 

In this report, stocking regions were developed using 
the FIBER model (Solomon and others 1995) to classify 
forest land as understocked, suboptimal, optimal, or 
overstocked. Stocking regions describe the site's degree 
of stocking in relation to management opportunities, 
e.g., suboptimal stands typically require 10 years before 
stocking would be sufficient for management activity. 
Stocking regions relate directly to thresholds depicted by 
FIBER stocking charts. Understocked acreage is below 
the "C line." Suboptimal acreage is between the C line 
and "B line." Optimal acreage is between the B line and 
the "A line." Overstocked acreage is above the A line. 

Stump . The main stem of a tree from ground level to 1 
foot above ground level, including the wood and bark. 

Timberland . Forest land producing or capable of 
producing crops of industrial wood (more than 20 
cubic feet per acre per year) and not withdrawn from 
timber utilization by statute (Acadia National Park and 
Appalachian Trail Corridor) or administrative designation 
(Baxter State Park and Bureau of Parks and Lands 
Ecological Reserve). The statutes and designations apply 
to publicly owned land only. Timberland was formerly 
known as commercial forest land. Timberland may be 
"nonstocked" so long as no natural condition or human 
activity prevents or inhibits the establishment of tree 
seedlings. 

Timberland includes the following components: 

a) Rural . The historical and traditional acreage 
classified as timberland in previous inventories. 

b) Other forest land . Defines a subset of forest land 
that is producing or capable of producing crops of 
industrial wood, but is associated with or part of a 
nonforest land use. In the past, these areas would have 
been treated as inclusions in the nonforest land use 
because they were considered part of a development. 
The minimum area for classification as Other Forest 



88 



Land is 1 acre. These strips of timber must have a 
crown width of at least 120 feet. Examples of land that 
could be classified as Other Forest Land are forested 
portions of city parks, forested land in highway 
medians and rights-of-way, forested areas between ski 
runs, and forested areas within golf courses. Generally, 
although surrounded by nonforest development, these 
areas have not been developed and exhibit natural, 
undisturbed understories. 

c) Urban timberland . A subset of forest land that now 
is grouped into timberland. Includes land that except 
for its location would be classified as rural timberland. 
This land is nearly (surrounded on three sides) or 
completely surrounded by urban development, whether 
commercial, industrial, or residential. This land meets 
all the criteria for timberland, that is, at least 1 acre 
capable of producing at least 20 cubic feet per acre 
per year of industrial wood, is not developed for other 
than timber production, and is not reserved by a public 
agency. It is highly unlikely that such land would be 
used for timber products on a continuing basis. Such 
land may be held for future development, or scheduled 
for development. (The timber that is present may be 
utilized only at the time of development.) The land 
may be undeveloped due to periodic flooding, low 
wet sites, steep slopes, or its proximity to industrial 
facilities that are unsuitable for residential development. 
Forested areas within city parks are not urban forest 
land; they may be Other Forest Land if all requirements 
are met. City parks cannot be classified as urban 
timberland as it is currently defined. 

Timber products . Roundwood (round timber) products 
and manufacturing plant byproducts harvested from 
growing-stock trees on timberland, from other sources, 
e.g., cull trees, salvable dead trees, limbs, tops, and 
saplings, and from trees on noncommercial forest and 
nonforest lands. 

Timber removals . The growing-stock or sawtimber 
volume of trees removed from the inventory for 
roundwood products, plus logging residues, volume 
destroyed during land clearing, and volume of standing 



trees on land that was reclassified from timberland to 
noncommercial forest land. 

Top . The wood and bark of a tree above the 
merchantable height (or above the point on the stem 4.0 
inches in diameter outside bark); generally includes the 
uppermost stem, branches, and twigs of the tree, but not 
the foliage. 

Tree class . A classification of the quality or condition of 
trees for sawlog production. Tree class for sawtimber trees 
is based on current condition. Tree class for poletimber 
trees is a prospective determination— a forecast of 
potential quality when they reach sawtimber size (1 1.0 
inches d.b.h. for hardwoods, 9.0 inches d.b.h. for 
softwoods). 

Tree grade . A classification of sawtimber quality based 
on guidelines for tree grades for hardwoods, white pine, 
and southern pine. (Note: Red pine was graded using the 
guidelines for southern pine.) 

Trees . Woody plants that have well-developed stems and 
that usually are more than 12 feet tall at maturity. 

Unproductive forest land . Forest land that is incapable 
of producing 20 cubic feet per acre per year of industrial 
wood under natural conditions due to adverse site 
conditions. 

Upper-stem portion . That part of the main stem or fork 
of a sawtimber tree above the sawlog top to a diameter of 
4.0 inches outside bark, or the point at which the main 
stem or fork breaks into limbs. 

Veneer log or bolt . A roundwood product from which 
veneer is sliced or sawn that usually meets certain 
minimum standards of diameter, length, and defect. 

Volume suitable for pulpwood . The net volume (only 
rotten cull excluded) of growing-stock and rough trees. 



89 



Table Al . Land area by land class, Maine, 2003 a 

(In thousands of acres) 
Land class Acres SE 



Timberland : 

Rural 17,148.5 .5 

Urban 54.1 25.1 



Total timberland 17,202.5 .5 



Forested land: 

Productive reserved 280.4 13.8 

Unproductive reserved 33.2 39.4 

Other forest land c 201.4 15.9 



Total forest land 17,717.5 .4 



Nonforest land: 

Cropland 4 95.3 8.6 

Pasture 81.2 22.6 

Other 1,381.7 4.8 

Noncensus water 75.7 19.7 



Total nonforest land 2,033.8 3.6 



Total land area 19,751.4 .0 

SE . 



In this and other tables, a zero indicates that the data are 

negligible or the condition was not encountered in the sample. 

A dash indicates that the condition is not possible under current 

Forest Service definitions. 
b Rows and columns in all tables may not sum due to rounding. 

"Other forest land" formerly known as unproductive forest land. 
d Source: 2000 United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. 



Table A2 . Area of timberland by forest type, forest-type group, and stand-size 
class, Maine, 2003 

(In thousands of acres) 



Stand-size class 

Forest type All 

Saw- Pole- Sapling and Non- classes SE 

timber timber seedling stock 



U aL A L->_Lllcz: 




o 


5 


8 




o 


. 


5 


8 


100 


o 




18 


2 


10 


4 


20 




. 


4 9 


2 






White pine 


351 


5 


124 


1 


19 


3 


.0 


494 


9 


9 


9 


White pine /hemlock 


118 


8 


38 


1 


4 


6 


. 


161 


5 


18 





Hemlock 


490 


2 


121 


8 


13 


9 


.0 


625 


9 


9 


1 


White/red pine cjroup 


978 


7 


300 


2 


58 


4 


. 


1,337 


4 


5 


9 


Balsam fir 


320 


3 


486 


6 


1,148 


1 


.0 


1, 955 





5 





White spruce 


41 


1 


56 





84 


1 


.0 


181 


2 


16 


4 


Red spruce 


512 


9 


323 


4 


178 





.0 


1, 014 


3 


7 


1 


I\C VJl O \~J i. UL.C / i^J d -L O dill J 1 — L 


252 


5 


181 


2 


514 


9 


. 


948 


6 


7 


3 


Black spruce 


17 


5 


213 


5 


204 


2 


.0 


435 


2 


11 


1 


Tamarack 


9 





34 


4 


15 


3 


. 


58 


7 


27 


8 


Northern white-cedar 


559 


7 


340 


5 


58 


6 


.0 


958 


9 


7 


2 


Spruce/fir group 


1,713 


1 


1, 635 


5 


2,203 


3 


. 


5, 551 


9 


2 


5 


Nnrwav Rnnirp 




o 


1 


5 


11 


4 


. 


12 


9 


63 


6 


Larch 




o 


6 


2 




o 


. 




2 


100 


o 


Exotic softwoods group 







7 


7 


11 


4 


. 


19 


1 


53 


8 


Wh. pine/no. red oak/wh. ash 


152 


8 


137 


1 


32 


5 


. 


322 


4 


12 


3 


Other oak/pine 


1 


6 


8 


9 


1 


5 


. 


12 





55 


9 


Oak/pine group 


154 


4 


145 


9 


34 





. 


334 


4 


12 





White oak/red oak/hickory 


19 


2 


67 


4 


13 


1 


. 


99 


7 


22 


5 


Northern red oak 


72 


1 


104 


9 


9 


2 


.0 


186 


2 


16 


4 


Southern scrub oak 












5 


7 


.0 


5 


7 


100 





Red maple/oak 


1 


5 


10 


2 







.0 


11 


7 


59 


2 


Mixed upland hardwoods 







1 


3 


15 


5 


.0 


16 


8 


54 


7 


Oak/hickory group 


92 


9 


183 


7 


43 


4 


.0 


320 





12 


3 


Sweetbay/swamp tupelo/red mple 







11 


7 







. 


11 


7 


70 


7 


Oak/gum/cypress group 







11 


7 







. 


11 


7 


70 


7 



92 



Table A2 . continued 



CO 

o 
o 

CM 



(In thousands of acres) 



Stand-size class 

Forest type All 

Saw- Pole- Sapling and Non- classes SE 

timber timber seedling stocked 



Black ash/Amer. elm/red maple 


11 


9 


64 


2 


44 


5 


. 


120 


6 


20 


3 


River birch/sycamore 












16 


8 


.0 


16 


8 


52 


2 


Cottonwood 







1 


3 


6 





. 


7 


3 


84 





Willow 












17 


1 


.0 


17 


1 


53 


2 


Sycamore/pecan/American elm 







4 


3 


4 


8 


.0 


9 





70 


8 


Sugarbrry/hackbrry/ elm/ gr . ash 







13 


9 


2 





. 


15 


9 


52 


3 


Silver maple/American elm 







5 


9 


11 


4 


.0 


17 


3 


57 


8 


Red maple (lowland) 


17 


9 


96 


9 


44 


1 


. 


159 





17 


3 


Elm/ash/red maple group 


29 


8 


186 


4 


146 


8 


.0 


363 





11 


5 


Sugar maple/beech/yellow birch 


2, 425 


4 


2, 628 


2 


1, 181 


7 


. 


6, 235 


3 


2 


4 


Black cherry 


1 


8 







1 


6 


.0 


3 


4 


69 


4 


Cherry/ash/yellow poplar 


20 


9 


75 


3 


58 


3 


. 


154 


5 


18 


2 


Hard maple/basswood 












21 


4 


.0 


21 


4 


50 


7 


Elm/ ash /locust 












3 


1 


.0 


3 


1 


70 


8 


Red maple/uplands 


98 


5 


295 


3 


145 


1 


.0 


538 


9 


9 


6 


Northern hardwoods group 


2, 546 


6 


2, 998 


8 


1,411 


1 


.0 


6, 956 


5 


2 


2 


Aspen 


103 


9 


375 


2 


446 


6 


.0 


925 


7 


7 


4 


Paper birch 


112 





529 


1 


600 


4 


.0 


1,241 


5 


6 


4 


Balsam poplar 


9 





34 


9 


49 


7 


. 


93 


6 


23 


1 


Aspen/birch group 


224 


9 


939 


1 


1,096 


8 


.0 


2,260 


8 


4 


6 


Nonstocked 

















47.8 


47 


8 


28 


9 


All forest types 


5, 740 


4 


6, 409 


1 


5, 005 


2 


47 . 8 


17, 202 


5 




5 


SE 


2 


5 


2 


3 


2 


8 


28.9 




5 







93 



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r- 


CM 


CM 


r- 


CTl 


CTl 


i — 1 


IX) 


rH 


in 


CM 


t-~ 


as 


IX) 


ro 


o 


ro 


ro 


i-H 


ro 


CM 


CO 


r- 


CO 


m 


a) 


CO 






o 


o 


r~ 


in 


t~ 




CM 


O 




1— 1 


*r 


i — 1 


CM 


as 


CTl 


M< 


CM 


m 


m 


i-H 


in 




IX) 


ro 




VD 


as 






r~ 


SH 


p 


































































o 


o 








CM 


CM 


CO 


i—l 






O 




o 


CM 


CO 


IX) 


1X> 




CM 


m 


r- 






















in 


i— i 


4H 


x: 








CM 






i — 1 






i-H 




ro 






CO 
































ro 


CM 


a 


4-1 
































































rH 


o 


c 




































































h- 1 


a 



































































— 


O 




































































4-> 




+ 




























































x: 








in 


CM 




in 


cn 


m 


O 


co 


o 


as 


cn 


as 


o 


CM 


o 


r- 


o 


o 


o 


m 


Q 


o 


o 


o 


o 


in 


ro 


O 


ro 


CO 






4-1 




t-H 


F- 


o 


CO 


*r 


CO 










ro 


in 


as 


i-H 




o 




IX) 




i-H 












VD 


o 




VD 


in 


X! 




o 








i—l 




CM 






r~ 




■-I 


i — i 


CM 


r- 


CM 




^H 




ro 




CM 














i-H 




o 


00 






rO 
































































T5 




4J 






















CM 






CO 
































iH 








C 
































































CO 




H 
































































CD 




































































x: 




































































o 






l 






























































c 






o 


CTl 




























































-H 












en 


VO 


, | 


o 


O 


vo 


in 




i — i 


i-H 


r- 


as 


as 


m 




in 




CM 


O 


o 




o 


o 


r- 


CO 


O 


00 


in 








i — i 




co 


"3* 


o 








vo 


CO 


o 


m 


m 


iX) 


in 


r- 


CM 


as 


r~ 


ro 


1X> 






ro 








o 




ro 


o 


+ 






i— i 


I—l 


CNJ 


CM 


i-H 


in 






CO 






co 


m 


co 


in 


CM 




CM 


r~ 




■^r 














i-H 




o 




o 














































































i— 1 
















VD 






o 
































ro 


co 


IT) 
































rH 


































i-H 


- — - 




































































co 




































































CD 




































































CD 






i 






























































SH 






o 


en 


IT) 


CM 


cn 


i-H 


in 


CM 


"3* 


in 


CO 


r~ 


CM 


.-H 




iX> 


O 


in 


"3" 


ro 


00 


cn 


r~ 


ro 


in 


CM 




ro 


IX) 


as 


o 


+-> 










CM 


■ — l 


CO 


oo 


CO 


CM 


i-H 


CO 


co 


o 


o 


i-H 




r~ 


CTl 


00 


1X1 


ro 


in 


o 


ro 


o 


i— i 


00 


CTl 


r- 


r- 


CO 


o 








lO 


o 


r- 






00 




CM 






VO 


o 


co 


i — 1 


i— 1 


1X> 


CO 


as 


-r 


in 


■^r 


in 






ro 






r~ 


•^r 


ro 


in 


T) 








t-H 




























































cC 








o 


CM 


CO 


~ 






oo 




1 — 1 


CM 


CM 


CM 


iX) 




iH 




£ 




ro 


















i-H 


ro 


CD 








CM 






i— 1 










CM 






r~ 
































ro 


o 



CJ) 

c 

■H 
T3 

C 

(0 
4-) 

co oo 
o 

MH O 
O CM 



X! 
m 



P 

o 

iH 

0) 

CO 
QJ 

■rl 

U 

0) 

& 

CO 



co 
O 

















































o 


to 






















































TJ 




















































TS 























M 
































SH 


O 




















t 






to 


























to 


3 


to 














: 


to 


T> 






73 


























x; 


T5 


X) 


CO 












c 


<v 


a 






O 






















T3 






Sh 


o 


CD 












-H 


c 


o 





























O 




rH 


(0 


o 


-H 












a 


-H 


i 


M 


CO 


3 


















CO 




o 




fO 


X! 


3 


U 












a 


; 


U 


■d 


4-1 








x: 










o 


to 


3 




-H 




TS 


CD 












: 




4-> 


o 


o 


IH 








o 














to 




o 


rH 


Sh 


a 




Q) 


(u 






4-> 




-H 


i-H 


o 


o 




X, 




CD 






>1 




•d 


to 


to 




Sh 


(0 


CO 


to 




o 


o 






-H 


o 


X! 


6 


S 


co 




CD U 


X! 


d) 






SH 




: 


o 


id 




(D 


-r| 


x: 






p 




(U 


0) 


X5 


r-H 




d) 


4-> 






rH SH 


o 


X 






SH 




SH 




X 




i 


O 




rH 


-rH 


u 


Sh 


o 


c 




rH 




.c 


14H 


rH 


CD 


a -H 


^4 




x: 




CD 






xs 






g 


SH 


i— i 


rH 


m 


Si 


a 


p 


d) -H 




CD 


c 




O 


CO 


rH 


CO X! 


-H 


C 


CO 




X! 


co 


c 





c 




o 


CD 


tO 


CO 




CO 


co 


SH 


c a 


C 


>1 


M 


c 


to 


4-1 


a 


e 


X! 


(0 


(0 




O 


o 


Sh 


u 


m 




o 


i 


4-1 




e 








•H 


M 




d) 


SH 




O 


CO 


3 




o 










CD 




u 






g 


o 




CO 


0) 


r« 


to 


a x: 


d) 


u 


Xi 


d) 


SH 


Eh 


s 


SH O 


SH 


-H 


CD 


c 




CD 


X! 


u 


-r| 




Sh 


o 




rH 


CO 


4-) 


o 




o 


-P 


d) 


4-1 


4-) 


d; 






CO rH 


CD 


u 


4-> 


CD 


o 


4-1 


4-> 


CD 


Sh 




: 


u 




(0 


rH 


•rH 


CO 


T3 


T3 4-i 


co 




Sh 


to 


x: 




T) 


tjl rH 


a 


CD 


-H 


a 


CO 


-H 


Sh 


x: 


11 


E 


x; 


c 




4-1 


CO 


x: 


rH 




0) -rH 


CO 


4-) 


O 


CO 


4-1 




CD 


P CD 


CO 


B 


x; 


CO 


rH 


x; 


O 


-P 


E 


rH 


4-1 


o 




O 


pq 


s 


m 


ct; 


OS Oh 


UJ 


o 


s 


H 


o 




OS 


W >H 


0j 


< 


s 




pq 


3 




o 


< 


W 


o 


2 




Eh 



103 















o 


CTi 


CN 


00 


rH 




o 


00 


O 


CTi 








































CO 




CO 


o 




lO 


o 


CN 


r- 


o 


LO 


rH 


CTi 














C\J 


i— i 




■■ r 


LO 




o 




rH 


rH 


























I — 1 








*• 








CO 
























CO 








CD 


i— i 


o 


CTi 


en 


CO 


CO 






[ 


CT^i 


CN 


CO 






1 — 1 


CD 
























03 






03 


V-i 


c*- 


LO 


O 


CN 


CD 


LO 


CN 




CTi 


i — 1 


CO 


H 








-p 


CTi 




CD 


30 


O 


CD 


CO 


O 




CN 


CO 


U 






o 




lO 




en 


Li) 


CN 


( 


CO 




O 




O 








Eh 


1— 1 
























r-J 










C\] 


LO 


Oi 


CN 






CN 








CO 


cu 








03 








CO 






CN 










-p 










i — l 






















CD 
































































03 










00 


CM 




O 


CN 


CF) 


t — 1 


CO 


CO 




[ 


-H 








■ — 1 
































03 


o 


rH 


LO 


CN 


CO 


CN 








'•■V 












-P 


LO 


1 — I 


CO 


CN 


CO 






CO 




CN 


CN 










O 


T 






'■.r 




LO 






* ' 


CTi 


CTi 


c 








Eh 


■* 






**■ 






** 






*" 


"* 


03 










r-H 


CN 


<o 


i — 1 






CN 




DO 
















CN 






CN 






\ — 1 




t — 1 






** 










i — 1 






















CO 
































CO 
































03 




o 




H- 


CO 


CO 


o 


LO 


o 


CT^i 


O 


o 


LO 


O 


CO 


r— 1 




-p 




LD 
























u 








t— t 


O 


CN 




O 




CN 


CN 




LO 


CO 


rH 






c 






ct\ 


CN 




CN 




CO 


* - ' 




U 1 


C£) 




c 




CD 








CO 




CD 










O 


LO 




o 


























** 






-H 




O 


















1 ' 










-P 




u 




























-H 




PQ 




























X5 
































C 






1 


























O 






* 


Cn 




1 ' 




1 1 


Cn 


c — ' 


CO 










o 






































i— 1 






CTi 


CO 


CD 


LO 


CN 


LO 




LO 




CD 


s 






i — I 


( — i 




CN 


CN 




CO 


( 






CO 


CO 


00 


CO 














CO 


co 










LO 


r- 


o 


Q) 
















** 
















-H 










CO 






CN 










CN 






U 
































Q) 
































































CO 


































CO 








00 




u ; 






^ 


Oi 


CO 


LI ) 




C) 


>t 


CD 




o 


CTi 
























X! 


CD 








O 


CTi 


CO 


LO 


o 


00 


L-D 




CO 


i — i 


r~~- 




M 




lO 


O 


CO 


lO 


LO 


CO 


[*- 


ro 


CO 


CO 


o 


CN 


CD 


T5 


-P 








"vT 


CTi 


rH 


rH 






CT> 




C£> 


CD 


CO 


C 










*" 


** 


*" 


** 






*" 




** 




^ , 


03 


4-1 








■vT 


l— ' 


CD 


CO 






CO 




'■■J" 


1 O 


CO 


>— 1 


O 








i — 1 






( — 1 










i — 1 






M 










i — 1 






















CU 


CO 






























£} 








i — 1 


























c 






fd 


ro 


CTi 


LO 


cn 


i — i 


■ r 


CN 




CTi 


LO 


LO 


-rH 


03 






p 
























P 


CO 






o 


CO 


co 


LO 


o 


o 


CN 


CO 




^* 




1 — 1 




P 






Eh 




co 




CO 


r-- 


CN 


CO 




lO 


en 


rH 


C 


O 








' ' 


r-~- 




CN 




CN 


CO 




CO 




rH 


o 


Xl 








** 


*■ 


** 


*■ 






*"■ 






*** 


*- 




-P 








rH 


CN 


CO 


rH 






<T\ 




CO 


CN 


CO 












CN 






rH 










CN 








c 






























































* 








































+ 


CN 


r- 


CO 


lO 


00 


O 


1 — 1 


O 


t 


r~- 


r~~- 


* 




ex 




LQ 




























O 




i— 1 


C\J 


ro 


LO 


Cn 






CO 




CO 


00 


CO 






-P 






[*■* 


o 


CO 




CO 










CO 


LO 


CO 












rH 




CN 






r*- 




rH 


rH 


CN 


CP 




-P 




























XI 




O 






















CN 






u 




03 
































-P 




























-H 




C 
































1— i 


| 




LO 


CO 


CO 


LO 


o 


o 


\^~~- 


CO 




CD 


CO 


+ 






o 


CTi 
























o 










*sT 


CO 


LO 


rH 






LO 




CO 


i — 1 


o 








rH 




CO 




o 


r- 








CO 


O 


LO 


LO 


LO 






<— 1 


rH 


CM 


CN 


rH 


LO 






CO 




CN 


CO 


LO 



o <y\ 
m o 



r~criir>r'">c\i'-Hir)ooooo , x>coLr>^r>x> 



H i — I 00 t — I LO CI t — I i — I 



CN 



CTiiH^rOlDCNJsl'si'CMr-CM 
rOi— im'j'mcNi^roooo 
co ^ rn ^ cmcm loooo 

Cfl (N n o oo o M CM 



ro 



CO (M in CO N <f 



coHojocnq'NCfi 



rococooc\icNir-~cocricsir-r-cOLncri 
ro>x)coro^ , ^ , ^ , Ln>x>r--cor~-cyiiiOT 
aaiNco^rcoofnincninnincNjcn 

mioifinmHiniN cm u in 

ro i — I n c\] cnj rH 



ocx)CMcoorocricNir--cncorocor--vD 
oiMcosrcoinhOH^HiocNOin 
oiooHOiiNcricoirir^NrocJitMir) 



id id oi h io^h 
CM i— 1 CM i— 1 CSI 



r~>x>ocMroocx)Ooaoooir)oco 

cricriix>cr\ir)>x>o o r~ o 

r~rocM^HCMror-- o h 

r-roro^r>c in cm 



oiDLni'oocMuocMmoooocrir^ 



oiinoHOMojn^r- 

COHCOHffl<JOO^C1 

NnmomH^HHH 



o cd in 



cor-cDcsjr~rocricoir)[-~coro^rcocM 



iDinoHiDmr-^comr-^tNcoH 
ooroccr~criocrir~rO'^ , CMrococoro 

Hror-inpjHhH i — I CM.-H 
CM CM rH iH rH 



aD^rroocMCMCMiOTrocMCDVDLnro 



(omoiD^hmcohhinHin<r>a' 
omcocoiDUtsiorofOr irocNaor- 
hCfiMiD^inoin ^co cocriro 



OOrOOCMOrHOOOOOrHLOO 



ld ro 

CD O 



OTOCMOCTiCMOOCDOOCDvHO 



ro o\ ld -g" in ro cm 
cm r~ cm cri r- ro cd 
m cm cm r~ ^ 



CD co 
CD O 



oomcoo(\imm^LOPi>Dhori 



iDh^mNtoinorooHnoihr- 
cTtcDr^rorOLO'crLn cDro ^rr-ro 



co 
TS 
O 





















































O 


CO 


























































Ti 






a 


















































T5 


O 






o 
















M 


































Sh 


O 






M 


















































rfl 


s 






tn 












ne 


CO 
CD 


ed 






ds 
























T3 




x; 


rd 


ds 




CO 












-H 


c 


o 






o 




















M 




O 




rH 


rO 





-H 


d) 














■H 


i 


M 


co 


o 




















rO 




O 




rfl 


X 


o 


U 


-H 














CU 


CD 


O 


Ti 


3 










X 










O 


CO 


3 




-H 




15 





U 












CD 




+J 


O 





+J 










o 












M 


CO 




O 


rH 


Ti 


CU 


a) 




cu 


CD 






+J 




•H 


H 


O 


IH 






X! 




a) 






>i 




T) 


rfl 


co 




SH 


rfl 


SH 


CO 


a 




o 


o 






-rH 


o 


X 


g 


3 


o 




CD 


O 


X 


CD 






M 




CD 


O 


rfl 




CD 


-H 


rfl 




w 


u 


p 




cu 


CD 


x; 


rH 


3 


CD 


+J 


CO 




rH 


u 


o 


X! 






M 




SH 




X! 




e 


O 


X 


rH 




-H 




M 


o 


C 




rH 




X 


Mh 




CD 


a 


•H 


u 




x: 




CD 






T) 






g 


Sh 




rH 




CH 








CD -H 




CD 


C 




O 


rH 


rH 


fO 


XI 


■H 


C 


CO 




X 


rO 


a 


CD 


C 




o 


CD 


rH 


rfl 






CO 


CO 


SH 


C tt 


c 


>i 


SH 


C 


co 


m 




e 




X! 


rfl 


rfl 




O 


O 


SH 


SH 


rfl 




o 


g 


rfl 






e 






CU 


-H 


u 




CD 


tH 




+j 


rO 








O 










(D 




O 






g 


4-1 






rd 


CD 




CO 


a x: 


CD 


M 


X 


CD 


Sh 


o 


e 


SH 


o 


SH 


-r| 


CD 


c 




<D 


x; 


u 


•H 




u 


O 


O 


rH 




CO 


-p 


U 




o 


-P 


CD 


-P 




CD 


Eh 




rd 


rH 


CD 


M 


4-> 


CD 


o 


4J 


+J 


a 


SH 




CD 


O 


Eh 


rfl 




rH 


■H 


(0 


T) 


Ti +J 


CO 


X 


U 


CO 


X 




T) 


tJi 


rH 




CD 


-rl 


a. 


rfl 


■H 


M 


X 





6 


x: 


c 




4-1 




rC 




rH 


CD 


0) -H 


ni 


+-> 


o 


ed 


4-1 




CD 


P 


(U 


ro 


e 


X 


co 


rH 


x; 


O 


4-> 


e 


rH 


4-) 


o 




O 




PQ 




m 




Pi Pm 


W 


O 


2 


w 


O 






CO 


>H 


a, 




s 


< 


PQ 




s 


o 


< 


H 


o 


2 




Eh 



Table A12 . Number of saplings on timberland by species and stand-size class, Maine, 2003 

(In millions of stems) 



CO 

o 
o 

M 



Stand-size class 



Species 


baw 

L. XULUfci L 


Pole - 

L lllUJfc; J_ 


Sapling and 
seedling 


Non — 

O 4- /— , ,— « \r 


All 

All 

classes 


C C 
OEj 




ba.ls3.rn. fir 


i a n 7 


i q m 

1, oUl 


9 ICQ 

3 , /by 


X 


£ Q7 Q 

o , y / o 


9 
3 


X 


larch ( introduced.) 


n 

u 


1 


U 


U 


i 


inn 
1 UU 


n 
U 


t dndrdc k ( ndtivs ) 


9 

z 


1 3 


1 Q 

i y 


u 


9 A 
J 4 


9 1 
Z X 


n 
u 


Norway spruce 


-1 

1 


U 


1 


r\ 
U 


Q 
O 


ol 


/ 


white spruce 


A 9 
4 Z 


/I 9 

4Z 


Q 9 
OO 


U 


loo 


1 u 


9 

z 


black, spruce 


9 o 
ZZ 


o b 


11/1 

1 /4 


U 


9 Q 9 

Z oZ 


1 9 
1 3 


9 
Z 




91 Q 

3 X _? 


99 9 


/ y 3 


1 
X 


1 4 9 6 


A 
H 


Q 

y 


jack pine 


n 
U 




U 


A 

u 


1 


inn 
1 U U 


n 
U 


T 1 ~n V"\ ~\ e^s V\A /~\"\ i ri 1" ^ i n i"i i n q 

laJJXfcr rlUUIl LdXIl pxiie 


n 


u 


u 


u 


n 


inn 
1 u u 


n 
u 


red pine 


U 


9 
3 


1 9 

1 z 


U 


1 o 


9 c; 
3 3 


n 
U 


eastern white pine 


4 R 

1 3 


x u y 


lift 
X X 


n 
u 


97 9 
Z / -3 


o 



L ± 


baldcypress 


n 
U 


U 


u 


U 


U 


inn 
1 U U 


n 
U 


IIUL Ullcrl. 11 Will Lc LcUdI 


1 91 


17 6 
X / D 


1 97 


n 


4 4 9 

4 L i J 


7 


p 

O 


eastern hemlock 


1 69 
10 3 


1 

1 JD 


b D 


u 


9 ft /l 
-3 O 4 


"7 


9 
3 


boxelder 


U 


U 


1 


U 


1 


inn 
1U U 


U 


striped maple 


Q A 
Z O 4 


9 n 7 
Z U / 


1 /I 9 
1 4 Z 


U 


£ 9 9 


c 

3 


Q 
O 


red maple 


A A 1 
4 4 1 


c c; 9 


Q Q £ 

yob 


U 


9 n q i 

Z , U o 1 


9 
3 


Q 
O 


sugar maple 


i y D 


9 11 
Z 1 1 


i 1 n 
1 1 U 


U 


D 1 / 


b 


/I 
4 


IllOUIl Ld-LIl llldp-Ltr 


1 61 


R4 


sn 


n 

u 


9 Q4 


Q 


2 


Norway maple 


1 


U 


n 
U 


U 


1 


7 n 
/ U 


y 


ailanthus 


U 


U 


U 


U 


u 


inn 
1U U 


n 
U 


serviceber r y 


b 


"7 


3 


U 


1 7 
1 / 


9 9 

Z Z 


9 

Z 


yellow birch 


Z bo 


9 19 

Z 1 z 


9 9 Q 

z j y 


U 


7 1 Q 

/ 1 y 


3 


3 


sweet birch 


9 
3 


/] 
4 


n 
U 


n 
u 


b 


D b 


1 
1 


paper birch 


1 R4 


91 n 

z x u 


7 n q 


n 


i i n 9 

X f X U J> 


3 


3 


gray birch 


1 o 


7 n 




n 


9 Q4 


1 1 


2 


American hornbeam 


7 


4 


n 

u 


n 


1 1 
X X 


97 

3 / 


]_ 


shagbark hickory 


n 
u 


u 


u 


n 
u 


n 
u 


i nn 

X u u 


n 


hawthorn 


u 


n 
u 


9 

z 


u 


9 
Z 


inn 
x u u 


n 
u 


American beech 


9 7 6 

Z / D 


99 ft 


111 

XXX 


n 


715 


5 




ash 


n 
u 


n 


n 


n 


o 


100 


o 


white ash 


3 u 


7 S 


J J 




17 9 


3 


5 


black ash 


a n 

4 u 


^n 


4 3 


u 


1 9S 

X O J 


1 9 


n 
u 


green ash 


9 
3 


X u 


]_ 


n 

w 


14 


30 


3 


apple 


9 


1 
1 


9 
/ 


n 
u 


i n 
x u 


9 Q 
Z ;? 


Q 


eastern hophornbeam 


9 A 


C 7 

b / 


9 9 
Z j 


u 


1 9 R 
X Z 3 


1 1 
1 1 


n 
u 


balsam poplar 


9 

/ 


i n 
1 U 


4 3 


u 


69 
OZ 


9 A 

Z 4 


3 


eastern cottonwood 


u 


1 


c 



u 


b 


ft 1 
O X 


Q 

y 


bigtooth aspen 


9 
/ 


9 Q 
J O 


1 9 ft 
1 Z o 


u 


17 9 
X / .j 


1 7 
X / 


9 

3 


quaking aspen 


9 R 

JJ 


Q A 
o 4 


917 


n 
u 


4 9 6 

H 3 O 


Q 


7 


pin cherry 


9 Q 

z y 


9 6 
3 O 


1 99 
1 j j 


n 


1 QQ 

X ^ 


i n 

X u 


9 

3 


black cherry 


1 A 

14 


9 9 
Z J 


9 Q 

3 y 


u 


7 R 

/ 3 


1 R 
X 3 


O 



chokecherry 


o 
3 


1 n 


i n 
1 u 


u 


9 9 
Z 3 


9 Q 

z y 


f± 


white oak 


n 
U 


9 
3 


u 


n 


H 


9 Q 

3 _7 


6 
o 


bear oak, scrub oak 

















100 





northern red oak 


26 


53 


31 





110 


10 


2 


black oak 


2 


3 








4 


56 


St. : 


willow 


.2 


2 


22 





26 


29 


2 


black willow 








2 





3 


47 


1 


American mountain-ash 


11- 


9 


24 





44 


17 


4 


American basswood 





3 








4 


43 


1 


elm 





1 








1 


100 





American elm 


6 


10 


8 





23 


24 


.2 


unknown tree 


1 


2 








3 


73 





Total saplings 


4,250 


5, 196 


8, 635 


2 


18, 083 


1 


.8 


SE 


3.7 


3.2 


4.0 


60.1 


1.8 







105 



Table A13. Number of saplings on forest land by species and stand-size class, Maine, 2003 

(In millions of stems) 



Stand-size class 



Species 










All 






Saw- 


Pole- 


Sapling and 


Non- 


classes 


SE 




timber 


timber 


seedling 


stocked 






balsam fir 


1, 439 


1, 831 


3,837 


1 


7, 109 


3.1 


larch (introduced) 





1 








1 


100 . 


tamarack (native) 


2 


13 


24 





39 


19.1 


Norway spruce 


1 





7 





8 


61.7 


white spruce 


43 


42 


94 





179 


10.9 


black spruce 


22 


87 


269 





378 


12.4 


red spruce 


327 


351 


829 


1 


1,507 


4.8 


jack pine 





1 








1 


100.0 


Table Mountain pine 

















100.0 


red pine 





3 


12 





15 


35.0 


eastern white pine 


45 


110 


120 





276 


8.3 


baldcypress 

















100.0 


northern white-cedar 


133 


181 


149 





464 


7 . 6 


eastern hemlock 


163 


156 


65 





384 


7.3 


boxelder 








1 





1 


100.0 


striped maple 


289 


212 


142 





643 


5.7 


red maple 


445 


658 


1,005 





2, 109 


3.8 


sugar maple 


196 


212 


110 





518 


6.4 


mountain maple 


163 


84 


50 





297 


9.2 


Norway maple 


1 











1 


70.9 


ailanthus 

















100.0 


serviceberry 


6 


7 


5 





18 


21.4 


yellow birch 


273 


214 


242 





729 


5.4 


sweet birch 


3 


4 








6 


56.1 


paper birch 


188 


223 


752 





1, 163 


5.5 


gray birch 


17 


70 


222 





309 


11.5 


American hornbeam 


7 


4 








11 


37 . 1 


shagbark hickory 

















100.0 


hawthorn 








2 





2 


100.0 


American beech 


283 


330 


111 





724 


5.6 


ash 

















100.0 


white ash 


50 


75 


55 





179 


8.5 


black ash 


41 


50 


46 





136 


12.8 


green ash 


3 


10 


1 





14 


30.3 


apple 


3 


1 


7 





10 


29.9 


eastern hophornbeam 


34 


68 


23 





125 


10.9 


balsam poplar 


7 


10 


45 





62 


24.5 


eastern cottonwood 





1 


5 





6 


81.9 


bigtooth aspen 


7 


38 


128 





173 


17.3 


guaking aspen 


35 


84 


317 





436 


9.7 


pin cherry 


29 


36 


134 





200 


10.2 


black cherry 


14 


23 


39 





75 


15.8 


chokecherry 


3 


10 


10 





23 


29.4 


white oak 





3 








4 


39. 6 


bear oak, scrub oak 

















100.0 


northern red oak 


26 


53 


31 


o 


110 


10.2 


black oak 


2 


3 








4 


56.5 


willow 


2 


2 


22 


o 


26 


2 9.2 


black willow 








2 





3 


47 . 1 


American mountain-ash 


12 


9 


24 





45 


17 . 


American basswood 





3 








4 


43.1 


elm 





1 








1 


100.0 


American elm 


6 


10 


8 





23 


24.2 


unknown tree 


1 


2 








3 


73.0 


Total saplings 


4,323 


5,289 


8, 945 


2 


18, 560 


1 . 8 


SE 


3.7 


3.2 


3.9 


60.1 


1.8 





106 



CO 

o 
o 

CM 



Table A14. Number of shrubs on timberland by species and stand-size class, Maine, 2003 



(In millions of stems) 







Stand-size 


class 










Species 










All 








Saw- 


Pole- 


Sapling and 


Non- 


classes 


SE 






timber 


timber 


seedling 


stocked 








leatherleaf 


394 


517 


1, 529 


55 


2, 495 


29 


2 


common juniper 


79 


98 


8 





184 


29 





Canada yew 


35 


118 


11 





163 


38 


1 


alder 


384 


509 


993 


9 


1, 895 


18 


7 


speckled alder 


1, 246 


1, 916 


2, 404 


68 


5, 635 


8 


6 


Hercules club 


5 





19 





23 


82 


7 


bog rosemary 





6 


41 





47 


87 


8 


chokeberry 


44 


38 


153 





235 


33 


1 


azalea 


37 


61 


89 





187 


32 


5 


barberry 


17 


9 


30 





56 


49 


6 


buttonbush 








3 





3 


100 





sweet pepperbush 





4 








4 


100 





sweetf ern 


70 


152 


645 





868 


29 


2 


alternate-leaved dogwood 


66 


67 


64 





198 


19 


4 


silky dogwood 


58 


112 


37 





208 


30 


7 


round-leaved dogwood 


7 


35 


7 





49 


45 


9 


gray-stemmed dogwood 


52 


36 


46 





134 


38 





red-osier dogwood 


321 


358 


1,283 


4 


1, 967 


18 


2 


American hazelnut 


293 


411 


156 





860 


14 


8 


beaked hazelnut 


2, 155 


2,807 


2,270 





7,232 


7 


2 


huckleberry 


262 


677 


235 





1, 175 


26 





witch-hazel 


192 


218 


64 





475 


14 


5 


winterberry holly 


325 


1, 089 


604 





2, 017 


13 


3 


sheep laurel 


941 


2, 002 


3, 827 





6,769 


12 


1 


mountain laurel 


3 


31 


16 





50 


55 


1 


swamp laurel 


10 


102 


123 





235 


35 


8 


Labrador tea 


139 


291 


955 





1, 385 


22 


4 


bush honeysuckle 


796 


1, 025 


1, 576 





3, 397 


10 


6 


male-berry, staggerbush 





4 


4 





8 


70 


7 


sweet gale 


144 


182 


338 





665 


42 


9 


bayberry 








10 





10 


86 


8 


mountain-holly 


212 


511 


708 





1, 431 


15 


2 


buckthorn 


67 


59 


32 





158 


35 


2 


rhododendron (evergreen) 


16 


35 


351 





403 


77 


6 


azalea (deciduous) 


28 


55 


1, 752 





1,835 


39 


2 


smooth sumac 








129 





129 


100 





staghorn sumac 


3 


3 


54 





60 


78 


2 


currant, gooseberry 


586 


274 


387 


34 


1,281 


10 





rose 


45 


98 


111 





255 


28 


2 


brier, bramble, dewberry 


9, 406 


9, 721 


17, 703 


240 


37, 069 


5 





American elderberry 


62 


259 


294 





615 


21 


9 


red-berried elderberry 


73 


62 


91 





226 


18 


7 


Other shrub willows 


112 


125 


803 


12 


1, 052 


12 





spirea 


411 


1,311 


2, 097 


156 


3, 975 


12 


6 


American bladdernut 


31 











31 


96 


4 


blueberry 


1,282 


3, 163 


4,645 





9, 090 


9 


2 


viburnum 


84 


90 


227 





401 


40 


7 


maple-leaved viburnum 


79 


90 


71 





241 


19 


9 


ilUi-'i-'ICJJUOH V XJJ LA ±- 1 1 L11U 


3,831 


2, 029 


959 





6, 820 


7 


7 


wild raisin, withe-rod 


323 


1,076 


1, 174 


15 


2, 588 


10 


5 


rrnwwnriH 

CHIUWWUU 


137 


162 


205 


1 


506 


17 


9 


nannyberry 


78 


177 


474 


16 


745 


25 


7 


highbush cranberry 


5 


30 


20 





55 


46 


9 


common prickly-ash 








9 





9 


100 





unknown deciduous shrub 


37 


73 


177 





287 


42 


8 


unknown evergreen shrub 


10 


17 


63 





90 


70 


7 


Total shrubs 


24, 997 


32,297 


50, 079 


611 


107, 984 


3 


.4 


SE 


6.2 


5.5 


6.3 


38 . 3 


3.4 







107 



Table A15. Number of shrubs on forest land by species and stand-size class, Maine, 2003 

(In millions of stems) 







Stand-size 


class 










Species 










All 








Saw- 


Pole- 


Sapling and 


Non- 


classes 


SE 






timber 


timber 


seedling 


stocked 








leatherleaf 


394 


517 


4, 049 


55 


5, 016 


22. 


6 


common juniper 


79 


98 


8 





184 


29. 





Canada yew 


35 


118 


11 





163 


38. 


1 


alder 


384 


524 


1, 041 


9 


1, 958 


18 . 


1 


speckled alder 


1, 341 


1, 924 


3, 013 


68 


6,346 


8. 


4 


Hercules club 


5 





19 





23 


82. 


7 


bog rosemary 





6 


150 





156 


56. 


3 


chokeberry 


44 


38 


204 





286 


28. 


8 


azalea 


37 


61 


104 





202 


31. 





barberry 


17 


9 


30 





56 


49. 


6 


buttonbush 





11 


3 





14 


82. 


7 


sweet pepperbush 





4 


1 





6 


78. 


4 


sweetf ern 


74 


152 


648 





874 


29. 





alternate-leaved dogwood 


66 


67 


64 





198 


19. 


4 


silky dogwood 


58 


112 


37 





208 


30. 


7 


round-leaved dogwood 


7 


35 


7 





49 


45. 


9 


gray-stemmed dogwood 


52 


36 


46 





134 


38 . 





red-osier dogwood 


321 


363 


1, 388 


10 


2,083 


17. 


9 


American hazelnut 


293 


411 


156 





860 


14 . 


8 


beaked hazelnut 


2, 173 


2, 878 


2,270 





7, 322 


7 . 


2 


huckleberry 


262 


677 


670 





1, 610 


22. 


8 


witch-hazel 


192 


231 


64 





488 


14. 


3 


large-leaf holly 





18 








18 


100. 





winterberry holly 


325 


1, 182 


670 





2, 176 


13. 


3 


sheep laurel 


941 


2, 048 


5, 643 





8, 632 


12. 


4 


mountain laurel 


3 


31 


61 





95 


55. 


7 


swamp laurel 


10 


102 


1, 030 





1, 142 


43. 


2 


Labrador tea 


139 


312 


3,003 





3, 454 


20 . 


1 


bush honeysuckle 


826 


1, 038 


1, 576 





3,441 


10 . 


5 


male-berry, staggerbush 





4 


4 





8 


70. 


7 


sweet gale 


144 


182 


595 





921 


33. 


3 


bayberry 








15 





15 


67. 


3 


mountain-holly 


220 


579 


977 





1,776 


13. 


9 


buckthorn 


70 


59 


164 





294 


48. 


9 


rhododendron (evergreen) 


16 


35 


546 





597 


57. 


2 


azalea (deciduous) 


28 


55 


2,263 





2, 346 


32. 


2 


smooth sumac 








448 





448 


70. 





staghorn sumac 


3 


3 


54 





60 


78 . 


2 


currant, gooseberry 


638 


278 


401 


34 


1, 352 


9 . 


9 


rose 


45 


98 


116 





259 


27 . 


7 


brier, bramble, dewberry 


9, 429 


9, 741 


17, 911 


240 


37, 321 


5. 





American elderberry 


62 


259 


294 





615 


21. 


9 


red-berried elderberry 


73 


62 


93 





228 


18. 


6 


Other shrub willows 


112 


140 


809 


12 


1, 072 


11. 


8 


spirea 


414 


1,311 


2,241 


161 


4, 126 


12. 


2 


American bladdernut 


31 











31 


96. 


4 


blueberry 


1, 300 


3, 265 


5, 343 





9, 909 


8. 


8 


viburnum 


84 


90 


227 





401 


40. 


7 


maple-leaved viburnum 


79 


90 


71 





241 


19. 


9 


hobblebush viburnum 


3, 894 


2,072 


959 





6, 925 


7 . 


6 


wild raisin, withe— rod 


O O Q 

323 


1,100 


1 , 232 


15 


2,669 


10 . 


3 


arrowwood 


137 


166 


205 


4 


513 


17. 


6 


nannyber r y 


78 


177 


474 


16 


745 


25 . 


7 


highbush cranberry 


5 


30 


20 





55 


46. 


9 


common prickly-ash 


o 


o 


9 


o 


9 


100 . 


o 


unknown deciduous shrub 


37 


73 


195 





305 


40. 


7 


unknown evergreen shrub 


10 


17 


63 





90 


70. 


7 


Total shrubs 


25, 313 


32, 891 


61, 698 


625 


120, 528 


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109 



Table A17. Net volume of all trees on timberland by class of timber and species 
group, Maine, 2003 

(In millions of cubic feet) 



Class of timber 



Species group 



Other Soft Hard 

Pines softwoods hardwoods hardwoods 



All 
species 



SE 



Growing-stock trees : 
Sawtimber size: 
Sawlog portion 
Upper stem 

Total sawtimber size 

Poletimber size 



1,851.0 5,305.0 1,665.1 1,930.1 10,751.2 

200.4 760.8 439.5 464.9 1,865.6 

2,051.4 6,065.8 2,104.6 2,395.0 12,616.8 

354.3 4,157.0 3,322.0 1,963.4 9,796.7 



Total growing-stock trees 2,405.6 10,222.8 



Rough trees: 

Sawtimber size 
Poletimber size 

Total rough trees 



Rotten trees: 
Sawtimber size 
Poletimber size 

Total rotten trees 



92.0 
14.3 



106.3 



2.0 
.1 



2.1 



328 . 7 
64 .2 



393.0 



56.1 
19.9 



76.0 



5, 426 . 7 



124 . 1 
178 . 6 



4,358.4 22,413.4 



302 . 7 



43.5 
33.0 



76.5 



158 . 9 
172 . 



330. 9 



46.0 
22.6 



68 . 6 



703.8 
429. 1 



1,132.9 



147 . 6 
75.6 



223.2 



1.9 
1.8 

1.91 

1.4 

1.4 



4.3 

3.1 

3.0 



6.9 
5.4 

5.0 



Salvable dead trees 
Sawtimber size 
Poletimber size 



11.7 
8.2 



161.4 
134.0 



Total salvable dead trees 19.9 295.4 

All classes 2,533.9 10,987.1 



24 . 8 
60. 6 



85.4 



17 . 6 
31.4 



49.0 



5, 891.2 



215.5 
234 . 1 



449.7 



4,806.9 24,219.2 



7.2 
4.3 

4.4 

1.3 



SE 



5.3 



2.1 



2.3 



3.1 



1.3 



110 



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113 



Table A21. Net volume of growing-stock trees on timberland by forest type and 
stand-size class, Maine, 2003 

(In millions of cubic feet) 



Stand-size class 

Forest type All 

Saw- Pole- Sapling and Non- classes SE 

timber timber seedling stocked 



Jack pine 







3 


7 




. 


. 


3 


7 


100 





Red pine 


57 


6 


14 


2 


4 


.2 


.0 


76 





44 


5 


White pine 


i m q 

1, U1j 




9 n q 

Z U y 


7 





. 1 




1 9 9 Q 

± , z z y 


"7 


1 U 




White pine/hemlock 


337 


4 


73 


3 


1 


.2 


.0 


411 


8 


19 


9 


Hemlock 


i n q p 


9 
Z 


loo 


o 
z 


o 
J 


1 

. _L 


n 


± r Z O y 


3 


± u 




White/red pine group 


2, 507 





489 





14 


. 6 


. 


3, 010 


7 


6 


6 


Balsam fir 


595 


8 


651 


8 


352 


.4 


. 


1, 600 





7 


3 


White spruce 


Q1 
j x 


A 
H 


77 




1 7 


7 


• u 


1 QC 




z 


9 
z 


Red spruce 


1, 271 


8 


577 


6 


73 


.5 


. 


1, 922 


9 


8 


1 


Red spruce/balsam fir 


508 


4 


248 


6 


226 


.2 


. 


983 


2 


10 





J_> _L ci A. bpi ULc 


97 


n 


397 


]_ 


69 


Q 
■ J 


n 
■ u 


4 1 7 

T X / 




X T 


7 

/ 


Tamarack 


8 


8 


47 





5 


.7 


.0 


61 


5 


33 


2 




1 1 £.1 

1^ ID / 


/ 


4 Q Q 
*i 


9 
z 


z 


Q 
■ O 


n 


1 £ Q Q 

-L r O .7 Z> 


7 


Q 

O 


1 
_L 


Spruce/fir group 


3, 670 


9 


2, 428 


5 


771 


.2 


.0 


6, 870 


6 


3 


6 


Norway spruce 












1 


.7 


. 


1 


7 


74 


4 


Larch 







3 


4 




.0 


.0 


3 


4 


100 





Exotic softwoods group 







3 


4 


1 


. 7 


.0 


5 


.1 


71 


5 


Wh. pine/no. red oak/wh. ash 


362 


7 


185 


5 


6 


. 6 


.0 


554 


9 


14 


4 


WL-Ilfcrx (_>dJ\./ £JXIlc 


i 


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x 


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z z 


a 
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z 


7 


7 n 


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Oak/pine group 


363 


9 


208 


1 


6 


. 6 


.0 


578 


6 


14 


1 


White oak/red oak/hickory 


25 


4 


82 


6 


1 


.5 


.0 


109 


5 


27 


2 


Northern red oak 


179 


8 


148 


9 


2 


. 7 


.0 


331 


4 


18 


2 


Southern scrub oak 














.2 


.0 




2 


100 





Red maple/oak 


7 


1 


19 


7 




.0 


.0 


26 


8 


50 


4 


Mixed upland hardwoods 









5 


2 


.2 


.0 


2 


7 


81 


4 


Oak/hickory group 


212 


3 


251 


7 


6 


. 6 


.0 


470 


6 


14 


4 


Sweetbay/swamp tupelo/red mple 







16 







.0 


. 


16 





71 


4 


Oak/gum/cypress group 







16 







.0 


.0 


16 





71 


4 



114 



Table A21. continued 



(In millions of cubic feet) 



Stand-size class 

Forest type All 

Saw- Pole- Sapling and Non- classes SE 

timber timber seedling stocked 



Black ash/Amer. elm/red maple 


27 


4 


60 


1 


17 


6 


.0 


105 





27 


6 


River birch/sycamore 












2 


7 


. 


2 


7 


77 


1 


Cottonwood 







1 


3 




9 


.0 


2 


2 


72 


1 


Willow 









u 






. U 






inn 
1UU 


(J 


Sycamore/pecan/American elm 







7 


6 




3 


. 


7 


9 


96 


6 


Sugarbrry/hackbrry/elm/gr . ash 







7 


6 




2 


. 


7 


8 


59 


2 


Silver maple/American elm 









9 


1 





. 


1 


8 


70 


8 


Red maple (lowland) 


22 


1 


93 


7 


12 


3 


. 


128 


1 


21 





■1—1 i / t_ / i "i 

Elm/ash/red maple group 


4 9 


5 


171 


1 


35 


2 


. 


255 


8 


15 


8 


Sugar maple/beech/yellow birch 


A A r\ o 

4,402 


5 


O A *~l A 

3,4/4 





o r o 

3 63 


y 


. 


o n /i n 

8,240 


3 


3 





Cherry/ash/yellow poplar 


48 


4 


101 





13 


4 


. 


162 


8 


25 





Hard maple/basswood 












3 


3 


. 


3 


3 


98 





Red maple/uplands 


167 


1 


406 


3 


53 





. 


626 


4 


11 


6 


Northern hardwoods group 


4, 617 


9 


3, 981 


3 


433 


6 


.0 


9, 032 


8 


2 


8 


Aspen 


255 


1 


602 


5 


117 


7 


.0 


975 


3 


10 


3 


Paper birch 


228 


8 


751 


9 


131 





. 


1, 111 


7 


9 





Balsam poplar 


25 


6 


42 


4 


17 


2 


.0 


85 


3 


37 


2 


Aspen/birch group 


509 


5 


1,396 


9 


265 


9 


.0 


2, 172 


4 


6 


6 


Nonstocked 

















. 9 




9 


56 


9 


All forest types 


11, 931 





8, 946 


2 


1, 535 


4 


. 9 


22, 413 


4 


1 


4 


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2 


8 


2 


7 


4 


4 


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125 



Table A31. Area of forest land by county and stand-size class, Maine, 2003 

(In thousands of acres) 



Stand-size class 

Counties All 

Saw- Pole- Sapling and Non- classes SE 

timber timber seedling stocked 







s 


90 


Q 
o 




Q 


"3 


n 


1 QR 


o 


1 


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ni UUo LUUA. 


1 ? 98 


Q 




1 

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1 9 




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o 


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190 


o 


153 


6 


25 


]_ 








Q 
o 


A 


Q 
O 


Franklin 


280 


5 


512 


8 


222 


6 







1, 015 


9 


1 


7 


Hancock 


264 


1 


392 


9 


259 


8 







916 


8 


2 





Kennebec 


142 


5 


175 


2 


69 


1 


2 


8 


389 


7 


4 


1 


Knox 


40 


7 


94 


4 


39 


7 







174 


8 


5 


9 


Lincoln 


96 


7 


91 


2 


26 


5 







214 


4 


6 


7 


Oxford 


521 


9 


571 





143 


4 







1,236 


3 


1 


5 


Penobscot 


515 


1 


817 


6 


668 


5 







2,001 


2 


1 


2 


Piscataquis 


914 


2 


730 


9 


785 


6 


8 


7 


2, 439 


5 




8 


Sagadahoc 


53 





52 


7 


14 


2 


2 


3 


122 


3 


6 


3 


Somerset 


789 


2 


773 


4 


809 


9 


4 


9 


2,377 


4 


1 


.0 


Waldo 


117 


4 


165 


7 


109 










392 


1 


3 


1 


Washington 


341 


7 


535 


9 


638 


3 


13 


6 


1, 529 


.5 


1 


.3 


York 


231 


6 


213 


3 


53 





1 


6 


499 


4 


3 


7 


Total, all counties 


5, 864 


2 


6, 544 


6 


5,259 


5 


49 


3 


17, 717 


.5 




4 


SE 


2 


5 


2 


3 


2 


7 


28 


1 




. 4 







126 



Table A32 . Area of timberland by county and stand-size class, Maine, 2003 

(In thousands of acres) 



Stand-size class 

Counties All 

Saw- Pole- Sapling and Non- classes SE 

timber timber seedling stocked 



■rt.iKj.i_ ubuuy y xii 


D D 


c: 




o 




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i no 


1 


1 


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y 


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1j j 





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X 




n 
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p 
O 


A 


p 
o 


Franklin 


262 


5 


503 


8 


203 


1 







969 


4 


2 


4 


Hancock 


251 


3 


385 


6 


218 


6 







855 


5 


2 


9 


Kennebec 


142 


5 


171 


1 


69 


1 


2 


8 


385 


6 


4 


3 


Knox 


40 


7 


81 


5 


39 


7 







161 


9 


8 





Lincoln 


96 


7 


91 


2 


26 


5 







214 


4 


6 


7 


Oxford 


520 


5 


566 


6 


143 


4 







1,230 


4 


1 


6 


Penobscot 


510 


7 


815 


7 


632 


3 







1, 958 


7 


1 


4 


Piscataguis 


862 


1 


649 


1 


713 


3 


8 


7 


2,233 


2 


1 


6 


Sagadahoc 


53 





52 


7 


14 


2 


2 


3 


122 


3 


6 


3 


Somerset 


782 


7 


765 





803 


9 


4 


9 


2, 356 


5 


1 


1 


Waldo 


117 


4 


165 


7 


109 










392 


1 


3 


1 


Washington 


336 


1 


530 


3 


601 


2 


13 


6 


1,481 


3 


1 


7 


York 


231 


6 


213 


3 


53 





1 


6 


499 


4 


3 


7 


Total, all counties 


5, 740 


4 


6, 409 


1 


5, 005 


2 


47 


8 


17, 202 


5 




5 


SE 


2 


5 


2 


3 


2 


8 


28 


9 




5 







127 



Table A33. Area of timberland by county and stocking class of all live trees, Maine, 2003 

(In thousands of acres) 



Stocking class 

Counties A±± 

Poorly Moderately Fully Over- classes SE 

Nonstocked stocked stocked stocked stocked 



Androscoggin 


1 


5 


16 


1 


55 


5 


108 


2 


12 


3 


193 


7 


7 




Aroostook 


12 


3 


205 


6 


1,119 





1,770 


6 


672 





3, 779 


5 






Cumberland 







7 


3 


104 


8 


221 


8 


34 


8 


368 


8 


4 


8 


Franklin 







60 


5 


273 


7 


485 


6 


149 


7 


969 


4 


2 


4 


Hancock 




U 


1 O 


X 


9 9 9 
Z Z Z 


9 

Z 


O ± 


4 

H 


J_ VJ _) 


Q 
o 


O J J 


~j 


9 
z 


~ 


Kennebec 


2 


8 


22 


8 


121 


5 


203 


7 


39 


3 


385 


6 


4 


I 


Knox 







11 


6 


75 





59 


2 


16 


1 


161 


9 


8 





Lincoln 







13 


5 


64 


8 


134 


2 


2 





214 


4 


6 




Oxford 







61 


5 


297 


4 


765 


4 


106 


1 


1,230 


4 


1 




Penobscot 







118 





640 


5 


907 


3 


292 


9 


1, 958 


7 


1 




Piscataguis 


8 


7 


79 


7 


583 


3 


1, 165 





396 


3 


2,233 


2 


1 


.6 


Sagadahoc 


2 


3 


1 


5 


40 


6 


61 


8 


16 





122 


3 


6 


.3 


Somerset 


4 


9 


78 


8 


567 


4 


1,278 


1 


427 


3 


2, 356 


5 


l] 


: 


Waldo 







28 


1 


108 


9 


219 





in 


1 


392 


1 


3 


: 


Washington 


13 


6 


87 


2 


489 





692 


7 


198 


7 


1,481 


3 


1 


7 


York 


1 


6 


18 


8 


212 





223 


4 


43 


8 


499 


4 


3 


7 


Total, all counties 


47 


8 


889 


1 


4, 975 


7 


8,747 


5 


2,547 





17, 202 


5 




5 



SE 



28.9 



7.5 



2 . 8 



4.2 



128 



Table A34. Area of timberland by county and stocking class of growing-stock trees, 
Maine, 2003 

(In thousands of acres) 



Stocking class 

Counties All 

Poorly Moderately Fully Over- classes SE 

Nonstocked stocked stocked stocked stocked 



Androscoggin 


1 


5 


28 


5 


62 


5 


91 


8 


9 


3 


193 


7 


7 


8 


Aroostook 


32 


2 


400 





1, 372 


2 


1, 544 


6 


430 


4 


3, 779 


5 




9 


Cumberland 


4 


9 


23 


8 


148 


5 


162 


4 


29 


1 


368 


8 


4 


8 


Frankl in 


6 





111 


4 


342 





428 


4 


81 


6 


969 


4 


2 


4 


Hancock 


8 


7 


112 


6 


263 





409 


9 


61 


3 


855 


5 


2 


9 


Kennebec 


2 


8 


36 


4 


158 


2 


167 





21 


1 


385 


6 


4 


3 


Knox 


1 


8 


23 


7 


69 


2 


64 


1 


3 


2 


161 


9 


8 





Lincoln 







20 


2 


68 


3 


123 


9 


2 





214 


4 


6 


7 


Oxford 







112 





361 


8 


691 





65 


6 


1, 230 


4 


1 


6 


Penobscot 


14 





213 


7 


753 


6 


821 


3 


156 


1 


1, 958 


7 


1 


4 


Piscataquis 


12 


3 


176 


2 


744 


6 


1, 040 


3 


259 


7 


2,233 


2 


1 


6 


Sagadahoc 


2 


3 


7 


6 


64 





43 





5 


3 


122 


3 


6 


3 


Somerset 


16 


1 


150 


6 


761 


8 


i, 150 


3 


277 


6 


2, 356 


5 


1 


1 


Waldo 


9 


8 


42 


2 


147 





181 





12 


2 


392 


1 


3 


1 


Washington 


41 


2 


145 


8 


577 


2 


596 


9 


120 


1 


1,481 


3 


1 


7 


York 


7 


2 


59 


8 


214 


2 


195 


5 


22 


7 


499 


4 


3 


7 


Total, all counties 


160 


8 


1, 664 


6 


6, 108 


2 


7, 711 


6 


1, 557 


3 


17,202 


5 




5 


SE 


16 


5 


5 


4 


2 


5 


2 





5 


6 




5 







129 











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131 



Table A36. Net volume of live trees on forest land by county and stand-size class, 
Maine, 2003 

(In millions of cubic feet) 



Stand-size class 

Counties — A11 

Saw- Pole- Sapling and Non- classes SE 

timber timber seedling stocked 



Androscoggin 


184 


.5 


156 


2 


10 


4 


. 1 


351 


2 


11 


8 


Aroostook 


2, 559 


.8 


1, 642 


8 


428 


5 


. 8 


4, 631 


9 


2 


9 


Cumberland 


532 


4 


255 


4 


12 


5 


. 


800 


2 


6 


2 


Franklxn 


£1 s 

Ol J 




777 


7 


83 


8 


. 


1,476 


8 


5 


1 


Hancock 


618 





623 





92 


9 


. 


1, 333 


9 


5 


9 


Kennebec 






2 61 

vj -L 


]_ 


26 


6 


. 


637 


9 


7 


a. 


Knox 


115 


9 


139 





13 


4 


. 


268 


3 


13 


3 


T i n c* r*\ 1 r~i 


255 


3 


142 


5 


11 


8 


. 


409 


6 


11 





Oxford 


1,225 


7 


899 


5 


50 


9 


.0 


2, 176 


1 


4 





Penobscot 


1, 197 


8 


1,196 


9 


192 


3 


. 


2, 586 


9 


4 


2 


Piscataquis 


1, 917 


5 


1, 132 


9 


246 


5 


.4 


3,297 


3 


3 


7 


Sagadahoc 


145 


8 


76 


3 


4 


6 


. 


226 


6 


14 


7 


Somerset 


1, 745 


4 


1, 148 


7 


237 


7 


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3, 131 


8 


3 


5 


Waldo 


285 


1 


266 


8 


45 


9 


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597 


8 


7 


9 


Washington 


613 


3 


722 


3 


224 


3 


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1, 560 


7 


5 


1 


York 


577 


1 


309 


4 


16 





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902 


7 


6 


1 


Total, all counties 


12, 939. 


1 


9, 750 


6 


1, 698 





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24,389 


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1 


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Table A39. Net volume of sawtimber trees on timberland by county and stand-size class, 
Maine, 2003 

(In millions of board feet) 



Stand-size class 

Counties A11 

Saw- Pole- Sapling and Non- classes SE 

timber timber seedling stocked 



Androscoggin 


606 


4 


246 


7 


13 


4 


.0 


866 


5 


19 





Aroostook 


7, 070 


8 


2,255 


1 


604 


2 


. 


9, 930 


1 


4 


3 


Cumberland 


1, 630 


9 


381 


5 


48 





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2, 060 


4 


9 





Franklin 


1, 628 


8 


1,108 


8 


97 


5 


n 
. U 


O Q O C 

Z , O J 3 


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9 





Hancock 


1, 519 


1 


800 


2 


82 


9 


. 


2, 402 


2 


9 


5 


Kennebec 


1,017 


2 


333 


4 


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1 


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1 r *i U J 


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1 1 


9 


Knox 


314 


6 


124 





9 


2 


. 


447 


7 


20 


5 


Lincoln 


820 


7 


160 


1 


5 





. 


985 


8 


18 


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Oxford 


3, 602 


8 


1, 370 


7 


72 


9 


. 


5, 046 


4 


6 


4 


Penobscot 


3,268 


6 


1, 577 


8 


226 


9 


. 


5, 073 


3 


6 


6 


Piscataguis 


5, 106 


8 


1, 504 


4 


391 


5 


. 


7, 002 


7 


5 


5 


Sagadahoc 


393 


1 


91 


8 


3 


8 


.0 


488 


7 


24 


2 


Somerset 


4, 931 


2 


1,566 


7 


429 


1 


.0 


6, 927 





5 


1 


Waldo 


710 


9 


369 


5 


40 


3 


.0 


1, 120 


7 


m 


2 


Washington 


1,444 





922 


2 


257 


5 


. 


2, 623 


8 


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9 


York 


1,787 


3 


469 


9 


18 


8 


.0 


2,276 





8 


9 


Total, all counties 


35, 853 


9 


13,282 


6 


2, 354 


9 


. 


51, 491 


7 


2 


.0 


SE 


3 


1 


3 


3 


6 


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142 



Table A46. Biomass of 


growing stock 


on timberland 


by 


county and 


component, Maine, 


2003 




(in 


thousands of 


dry 


tons ) 








Growing stock 










Counties 










Total 


SE 




Poletimber 


Sawlog 




Upper stem growing stock 




Androscoggin 


2 ,969 


3 ,490 




a r\ n 


/ r {JOO 


11.6 


Aroostook 


38, 019 


39,640 




"7 fin 

7,617 


O C "~i H *7 
OD f Z / / 


3.0 


Cumberland 


6,289 


8,476 




1,561 


1 C 1 o c 

1 6 , iz 6 


6.5 


Franklin 


15,875 


12 , 154 




z , d / y 


on £ n q 

jU f DUO 


5.7 


Hancock 


11, 692 


9, 128 




1,678 


22,499 


6.5 


Kennebec 


6,081 


6,223 




1, 161 


13,465 


7 . 8 


Knox 


2, 186 


1,982 




JOO 


& S 3 6 


15.3 


Lincoln 


3,354 


3,935 




609 


7,898 


10.4 


Oxford 


20,743 


21,244 




4,231 


46,217 


4.0 


Penobscot 


22,579 


19,254 




3,578 


45,411 


4 . 1 


Piscataquis 


23,628 


27,712 




5,190 


56,530 


4 . 1 


Sagadahoc 


1,964 


2,047 




367 


4,379 


14 . 1 


Somerset 


28,342 


28,895 




5,831 


63,068 


3 . 9 


Waldo 


5,548 


4,785 




925 


11,258 


8.8 


Washington 


14,802 


9, 866 




1,717 


26,385 


5.2 


York 


7,697 


9, 133 




1,587 


18,417 


6.2 


Total, all counties 


211,769 


207,965 




39,605 


459,340 


1.4 



SE 



1.3 



1.9 



2.0 



1.4 



143 



Table Bl. Land area by land class, Maine, 1995 



(In thousands of acres) 


Land class 


Acres 


SE 


Timberland : 
Rural 
Urban 


17,014.6 
39.5 


.5 
40 . 


Total timberland 


17,054.1 


.5 


Forested land: 
Productive reserved 
Unproductive reserved 
Other forest land c 


253 . 9 
13 . 1 
370.2 


15 . 8 
70.8 
12 . 1 


Total forest land 


17,691.3 


.4 


Nonforest land: 
Cropland 
Pasture 
Other 

Noncensus water 


532 . 7 
169.2 
1,332.7 
25.6 


8.5 
18.4 

5 . 1 
46 . 


Total nonforest land 


2,060.1 


3.1 


Total land area d 


19,751.4 b 


.0 


SE 


.0 





In this and other tables, a zero indicates that the data are 
negligible or the condition was not encountered in the sample. 
A dash indicates that the condition is not possible under current 
Forest Service definitions. 

b Rows and columns in all tables may not sum due to rounding. 

"Other forest land" formerly known as unproductive forest land. 
d Source: 2000 United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census 



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Table B3 . Area of timberland by forest type, forest-type group, and stand-size 
class, Maine, 1995 



(In thousands of acres) 



Stand-size class 

Forest type All 

Saw- Pole- Sapling and Non- classes SE 

timber timber seedling stocked 



Jack pine 




.0 


6 


4 







.0 


6 


4 


100 





Red pine 


6 


.6 


21 


4 


6 


4 


.0 


34 


4 


42 





White pine 


245 


.0 


149 


9 


36 


5 


.0 


431 


5 


11 


9 


White pine/hemlock 


40 


. 1 


55 





2 


9 


.0 


97 


9 


25 


2 


Hemlock 


152 


.8 


223 


7 


26 


7 


.0 


403 


2 


12 


4 


White/red pine group 


444 


.6 


456 


5 


"fe 


.4 


.0 


973 


4 


7 


7 


Daib am rir 


7. =1 f, 
O D D 


7 


1 4 9 9 


I 


1 162 


4 


. 


3 018 


1 


4 




White spruce 


29 


.6 


48 


3 


56 


6 


.0 


' 134 


5 


21 


4 


Red spruce 


155 


.2 


543 


6 


150 


.6 


. 


849 


4 


8 


4 


Red spruce/balsam fir 


192 


4 


769 


2 


512 


.0 


.0 


1,473 


5 


6 


3 


Black spruce 


6 


7 


182 


8 


15 


.2 


.0 


204 


7 


17 


.6 


.L OA 1 1 G. J_ CI Jv 




o 


74 


o 


13 


4 


. 


87 


4 


27 


, i 




3 5 

■J \J ~J 


4 


580 


8 


9 1 


. 2 


. 


977 


4 


7 


, 4 


Spruce/fir group 


1,045 


9 


3,697 


7 


2,001 


.4 


.0 


6, 745 


.0 


2 


.2 


Pitch pine 




.0 


6 


7 




.0 


.0 


6 


7 


100 


.0 


Loblolly/shortleaf group 







6 


7 




.0 


.0 


6 


7 


100 


.0 


Wh. pine/no. red oak/wh. ash 


57 


7 


124 





39 


.9 


. 


221 


.6 


17 


.1 


Other oak/pine 







6 


7 




.0 


.0 


6 


7 


100 


.0 


Oak/pine group 


57 


7 


130 


7 


39 


.9 


.0 


228 


.3 


16 


.9 


White oak/red oak/hickory 







48 


7 


6 


.2 


. 


55 


.0 


35 


.5 


Northern red oak 


2 


9 


59 


1 


17 


.6 


.0 


79 .f 




29. < 


I 


Red maple/oak 




.0 


21 







.0 


. 


21 


.0 


56 


.2 


Mixed upland hardwoods 


3 


4 


13 


2 


16 


,2 


.0 


32 


.8 


42 


.2 


Oak/hickory group 


6 


3 


142 


1 


40 


.0 


. 


188 


.3 


18 


.5 


Sweetbay/swamp tupelo/red mple 


7 


1 


32 


1 


23 


.9 


.0 


63 


.1 


31 


.8 


Oak/gum/cypress group 


7 


1 


32 


1 


23 


.9 


.0 


63 


.1 


31 


.8 



146 



Table B3 . continued 



(In thousands of acres) 







Stand-size class 












Forest type 












All 








Saw- 


Pole- 


Sapling and 


Non- 


classes 


SE 




timber 


timber 


seedling 


stocked 








Black ash/Amer. elm/red maple 


13.2 


ion *3 


CO R 
DZ .3 




. 


195 . 9 


18 . 


4 


River birch/sycamore 


.0 


.0 


58 . 8 




. 


58.8 


32. 


9 


Willow 


. 


6.6 


28.9 




.0 


35 . 6 


41. 


4 


Sycamore/pecan/American elm 


.0 


33.6 


6.7 




.0 


40.3 


51. 


2 


Sugarbrry/hackbrry/elm/gr . ash 


.0 


6.5 


.0 




.0 


6.5 


inn 
1 U U . 


u 


Silver maple/American elm 


.0 


6.6 


.0 




.0 


6.6 


100. 





Red maple ( lowland) 


19.9 


y y . O 


A £. 1 




. 


166.3 


i n 

1 9 . 


7 


Elm/ash/red maple group 


33.1 


O "7 *3 

z / J . o 


Z U j . D 




. 


510.0 


11 . 


4 


Sugar maple/beech/yellow birch 


646 . 3 


2,960.6 


1,870.9 




.0 


5,477.8 


2 . 


7 


Black cherry 


.0 


5.3 


13.2 




.0 


18.5 


C Q 

DO . 


A 
U 


Cherry/ash/yellow poplar 


23.0 


153.1 


93.6 




.0 


269.7 


15. 


3 


Hard maple/basswood 


.0 


o . o 


OO Q 

Z Z • y 




.0 


29.5 


A R 
ID. 


Z 


Red maple/uplands 


37.3 


208 . 8 


120.8 




.0 


366.8 


13. 


8 


Northern hardwoods group 


706.6 


3,334.4 


2,121.3 




.0 


6,162.4 


2 . 


4 


Aspen 


67.1 


442.6 


402.7 




.0 


912 .4 


8. 


1 


Paper birch 


15.4 


AOl ft 

ft z / • o 






.0 


1,012.8 


7 . 


7 


Gray birch 


.0 


7.5 


.0 




.0 


7.5 


100. 





Balsam poplar 


. 


38.6 


25.2 




.0 


63 . 8 


31. 


5 


Aspen/birch group 


82.5 


916.5 


997.5 




.0 


1,996.5 


5 . 


3 


Nonstocked 


52.1 


74.0 


.0 


54 


.3 


180.4 


17 . 


7 


All forest types 


2,435.9 


9,063.9 


5,499.9 


54 


.3 


17,054.1 




5 


SE 


4.8 


1.8 


2.6 


29 


.1 


.5 







147 



Table B4. Area of timberland by forest-type group and stocking class of all live trees, 
Maine, 1995 

(In thousands of acres) 



Stocking class 



Fores t— type 












A J. J 




group 




roorxy 




Fn 1 1 v 

J. Li J L V 




pi accpc 


OEi 


Nonstocked 


stocked 


stocked 


stocked 


stocked 






White/red pine 


.0 


25.0 


173.0 


541.4 


234 . 1 


973.4 


7.7 


Spruce/fir 


.0 


209.9 


1,596.4 


3,635.6 


1,303.1 


6,745.0 


2.2 


Loblolly /short leaf 


.0 


.0 


.0 


6.7 


.0 


6.7 


100.0 


Oak/pine 


.0 


.0 


33.7 


174.3 


20.3 


228.3 


16.9 


Oak/hickory 


.0 


11.8 


25.3 


103 . 9 


47.3 


188.3 


18.5 


Oak/gum/ cypress 


.0 


6.6 


6.8 


26.0 


23.8 


63. 1 


31.8 


riim/ asn / reu iua.pxe 


n 
• u 


7 7 Q 


1 (17 Q 


2 7 9 S 


84 7 


j ± \j . u 


J. 1 . 4 


Northern hardwoods 


.0 


166.9 


974 .9 


3,412.8 


1,607.7 


6, 162.4 


2.4 


Aspen/birch 


.0 


104.7 


279.4 


783.9 


828.5 


1,996.5 


5.3 


All type groups 


.0 


562 .7 


3, 197.4 


8,964.0 


4,149.5 


16,873.6 


.5 


Nonstocked 


54 .3 


99.9 


18.5 


7.7 


.0 


180.4 


17.7 


All groups 


54.3 


662.6 


3,215.9 


8,971.7 


4,149.5 


17,054.1 


.5 


SE 


29 . 1 


9.4 


4.0 


1.9 


3.4 


.5 





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Table Bll. Net volume of all trees on timberland by class of timber and species 
group, Maine, 1995 

(In millions of cubic feet) 



Species group 

Class of timber All 

Other Soft Hard species SE 

Pines softwoods hardwoods hardwoods 



Growing-stock trees: 
Sawtimber size 
Poletimber size 




1,964 
332 


.5 
. 1 


5,524 
4,255 


.0 
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1, 091 
1,792 


.8 
. 7 


3,260 
3 ,765 


.4 
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11,840 
10, 145 


.8 
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1 
1 


.9 
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Total growing-stock 


trees 


2,296 


.6 


9,779 


. 7 


2,884 


.5 


7,025 


.4 


21,986 


.2 


1 


.2 


Rough trees : 

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Poletimber size 




56 
5 


.5 
.5 


251 
25 


.4 
.6 


127 
53 


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.8 


227 
132 


.6 
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663 
217 


.3 
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4 
4 


.6 

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Total rough trees 




62 


. 1 


277 


.0 


181 


.6 


359 


. 7 


880 


.4 


3 


.7 


Rotten trees : 
Sawtimber size 
Poletimber size 




9 


.4 
.4 


77 
10 


.1 
.6 


51 
17 


.9 

.0 


121 
23 


. 7 
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260 
51 


.1 
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5 
5 


.5 
.5 


Total rotten trees 




9 


.8 


87 


. 7 


68 


.9 


145 


. 1 


311 


.5 


4 


.8 


Salvable dead" trees: 
Sawtimber size 
Poletimber size 




7 
5 


.7 

.5 


133 
105 


.8 
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17 
16 


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49 
74 


.8 
.4 


208 
201 


.2 
.3 


7 
4 


.1 
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Total salvable dead 


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13 


.1 


239 


.1 


33 


.1 


124 


.2 


409 


.5 


4 


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All classes 




2,381 


. 7 


10,383 


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3, 168 


.0 


7,654 


.4 


23,587 


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1 


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Table B14. Net volume of growing-stock trees on timberland by species and stand-size 
class, Maine, 1995 

(In millions of cubic feet) 



Stand-size class 



Species group 














All 








Saw- 




Pole- 


Sapling 


and 


Non- 


classes 


SE 






timber 


timber 


seedling 


stocked 










Balsam fir 


339 . 





1,545.5 


352 


. 1 


. 2 


2,236 


. 8 


3 . 


4 


Atlantic white-cedar 




o 


m \ 




. 


. 




_ I 


100 . 


o 


White spruce 


132 . 


3 


267 . 7 


67 


.5 


2.4 


469 


.9 


7 . 


8 


Black spruce 


44 . 


2 


250.9 


32 


. 4 


. 5 


328 


. 


12 . 


7 


Red spruce 


738 . 


2 


2,115.7 


423 


. 5 


.4 


3,277 


. 8 


3. 


9 


Red pine 


17 . 


1 


51.0 


4 


.5 


. 


72 


. 6 


27 . 


6 


Pitch pine 


6 . 


2 


22.7 




. 8 


. 


29 


. 7 


64 . 


9 


Eastern white pine 


982 . 


8 


973 . 8 


231 


. 6 


2 . 8 


2,191 


. 


6 . 


4 


Other yellow pines 




o 


3.3 




.0 


. 


3 


. 3 


63 . 


1 


Northern white-cedar 


663 . 


6 


1,011.9 


284 


.9 


1 . 3 


1,961 


. 8 


5 . 


o 
Z 


Eastern hemlock 


433 . 


9 


744 . 1 


155 


.5 


. 


1,333 


.5 


6 . 


1 


Other softwoods 


14 • 


7 


143.3 


13 


. 9 


. 


171 


. 8 


14 . 


6 


Total softwoods 


3,371. 


9 


7 , 129 . 9 


1,566 


.9 


7.6 


12, 076 


. 3 


2 . 


1 


Red maple 


375 . 


1 


1 , 792 . 9 


346 


. 7 


1 . 1 


2,515 


.8 


3 . 


1 


Sugar maple 


451. 





976.8 


324 


. 1 


. 


1,751 


.9 


5 . 





Yellow birch 


213. 


8 


605 . 


205 


.1 


. 


1,023 


. 8 


4 . 


4 


Paper birch 


101. 


1 


936 . 1 


120 


. 1 


. 


1,157 


. 4 


4 . 


6 


Hickory 




4 


. 1 




.0 


. 




.5 


85 . 


5 


7\ tti c> t — i /""an Kppph 


160. 





637.6 


161 


.5 


. 6 


959 


m 7 


5 . 


8 


White ash 


50. 


9 


262 . 3 


45 


.0 


.7 


358 


.9 


8 . 


4 




85 . 


7 


1,107.7 


125 


.6 


. l 


1 319 


_ I 


6 . 


4 


Black cherry 


7 . 


7 


27 . 3 


5 


. 6 


.0 


40 


.6 


18 . 


8 


TXTh "i +~ nak 
u ii j_ u c < a jv 


1. 


4 


14 . 3 




. 


• 


15 


. 8 


30 . 


3 


Northern red oak 


93. 


8 


376.3 


53 


.5 


1.1 


524 


.7 


8. 


3 


Other white oaks 




8 


. 




.0 


. 




.8 


100 . 





Other red oaks 


3. 


9 


17.4 




. 


.0 


21 


.3 


36. 


5 


American basswood 


2. 


3 


29.2 


4 


. 7 


.0 


36 


.2 


19 . 


8 


Elm 


3. 


8 


12.3 


2 


.5 


.0 


18 


.6 


18. 


1 


Other hardwoods 


27. 


3 


115.1 


22 


.2 


.2 


164 


.8 


8. 


4 


Total hardwoods 


1,578. 


9 


6,910.5 


1,416 


. 6 


4.0 


9,909 


.9 


1. 


8 


Total, all species 


4, 950 . 


8 


14,040.4 


2,983 


.4 


11.6 


21,986 


.2 


i. 


2 


SE 


5. 


3 


2.1 


4 


. 6 


31.9 


1 


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rd 


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Table CI. Land area by 


land 
(In 


class, Maine, 1982 a 
thousands of acres) 




Land class 




Acres 


s E 


Timberland: 
Rural 
Urban 




17,121.0 
2.0 


.5 
.0 


Total timberland 




17,123.1 


.5 


Forested land: 

Productive reserved 
Other forest land c 




290.3 
248 . 


17.7 
16.0 


Total forest land 




17,661.3 


.3 


Nonforest land: 
Cropland 
Pasture 
Other 

Noncensus water 




827 .4 
249.0 
887. 1 
126.5 


7.2 
16.4 

7.6 
23.6 


Total nonforest land 




2,090.0 


2.9 


Total land area" 




19,751.4 b 


.0 


SE 




. 





In this and other tables, a zero indicates that the data are 
negligible or the condition was not encountered in the sample. 
A dash indicates that the condition is not possible under current 
Forest Service definitions. 

b Rows and columns in all tables may not sum due to rounding. 

c "Other forest land" formerly known as unproductive forest land. 

d Source: 2000 United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. 



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Table C3. Area of timberland by forest type, forest-type group, and stand-size 
class, Maine, 1982 



(In thousands of acres) 







Stand- 


size class 










Forest type 










All 








Saw- 


Pole- 


Sapling and 


Non- 


classes 


SE 






timber 


timber 


seedling 


stocked 










i n a 
1 U . 4 


y . d 


. u 


. 


1 o o 

i y . o 


7 


o 
. O 


TaTVi 1 fa r-v i n pv 




1/0.9 


23.4 


. 


534.2 


10 


. 7 


TaTVi i fo t» i n o / Vi om 1 apV 
VV11_L Uc LJXJ.ltr/ UcllLXUUA 


"7 1 Q 
/ 1 . 


/l "3 1 


. 




ii/i n 


O A 

2 


o 
. 


il tillL-L W j\- 


o Q o o 

o oZ . Z 


O /I O. o 

z49 . y 


. 


. 


632 . 1 


1 1 


. 2 


White/red pine group 


804 .2 


473.4 


23.4 


.0 


1,301.0 


7 


.0 


Balsam fir 


583.8 


1,264.2 


280.7 


.0 


2, 128.7 


6 


.2 


White spruce 


39.3 


90.5 


34.4 


.0 


164. 1 


23 


.8 


Red spruce 


453.5 


955.3 


20.6 


.0 


1,429.3 


7 


.7 


Red spruce/balsam fir 


486.9 


1,033.1 


104.1 


.0 


1,624.0 


7 


.3 


Black spruce 


.0 


187.2 


86.8 


.0 


274 . 


18 


.5 


Tamarack 


8.8 


26.5 


30.2 


.0 


65.5 


37 


.0 


iNOJ-cnexrn wnite-ceuai 


CI 1 ET 

D 1 1 • D 


A O Q 

4 y y . j 


on r\ 
Z U . U 


. u 


i r\ o n o 


y 


. l 


Spruce/fir group 


2,083.7 


4,056.1 


576.8 


.0 


6,716.6 


2 


.8 


Pitch pine 


4.1 


.0 


.0 


.0 


4.1 


100 


.0 


Loblolly / short leaf group 


A 1 
4.1 


• u 


. U 


- U 


A 1 

4.1 


1 U U 


n 
. U 


wn . pine/ no • rea oaK/wn. asn 


J j • J 


1 ft Z . 27 


ZD . O 


• u 


9 9 9 "5 


1 ^ 


c. 
. D 


Other oak/pine 


.0 


3.8 


.0 


.0 


3.8 


100 


.0 


Oak/pine group 


53.5 


146.8 


25.8 


.0 


226 .1 


15 


.4 


White oak/red oak/hickory 


8.2 


86.6 


15.1 


.0 


109.8 


25 


.2 


Northern red oak 


29.0 


99.2 


18.0 


.0 


146.2 


19 


.2 


Southern scrub oak 


. 


. 


8.2 


. 


8.2 


70 


. 7 


Red maple/oak 


.0 


8.2 


3.7 


.0 


11.8 


57 


.8 


Mixed upland hardwoods 


.0 


10.4 


13.8 


.0 


24.2 


61 


.2 


Oak/hickory group 


37.2 


204 .3 


58.8 


.0 


300.3 


14 


.1 


Sweetbay/ swamp tupelo/red mple 


4.4 


47.3 


4.0 


.0 


55.7 


32 


.4 


Oak/gum/cypress group 


4.4 


47.3 


4.0 


.0 


55.7 


32 


.4 



CM 
00 
O) 



169 



Table C3 . continued 



(In thousands of acres) 







Stand- 


size class 








Forest type 










All 






Saw- 


Pole- 


• 

Sapling and 


Non- 


classes 


C TP 




timber 


timber 


seedling 


stocked 






"Rl^r-lc a«;h / Ampr pi m/rpd ttisdIp 

J_> X JS. CI Oil/ illl J_ a ^3 J_ i L L / J_ ^ \*t illU.^-' -1- v — • 


13.4 


173.4 


. 


. 


186 . 8 


22 . 4 


River birch/sycamore 


. 


10 . 8 


63.2 


.0 


74.0 


34.4 


Willow 


. 


. (J 


2 . 1 


. u 


O C 1 
ZD . I 


53.7 


Sycamore/pecan/American elm 


. 


9 . 6 


4 . 1 


. 


13.7 


76.2 


Sugarbrry/hackbrry/ elm/gr .ash 


. 


. 


4 . U 


. u 


4 . 


inn a 

10 0.0 


Red maple ( lowland) 


30.7 


169.8 


22.8 


. 


223.3 


18.2 


Elm/ash/red maple group 


44.1 


363.5 


120 .2 


. 


527.8 


12 . 3 


Sugar maple/beech/yellow birch 


2 , 034 . 2 


2 , 566 . 8 


465 . 4 


. 


5 , 066 . 4 


3 . 5 


Black cherry 


.0 


9.4 


33.7 


.0 


43.1 


46.4 


Cherry/ash/yellow poplar 


14.4 


32 . 5 


30.1 


. 


77.1 


30.1 


Hard maple/basswood 


19.8 


17.5 


12.9 


. 


50.2 


40.4 


Elm/ ash/locust 


. 


4 . 


3 . 5 


. 


7 . 5 


70.9 


Red maple /uplands 


12.3 


247.1 


50.9 


. 


310.3 


15 . 8 


Northern hardwoods group 


2,080.8 


2,877.3 


596.5 


. 


5 , 554 . 6 


3.3 


Aspen 


131.0 


799 . 7 


302.4 


. 


1 , 233 . 1 


8 . 2 


Paper birch 


50 . 6 


747 .9 


260.4 


.0 


1,058.9 


9.1 


Gray birch 


.0 


4 . 1 


4 . 1 


. 


8.2 


70 . 7 


Balsam poplar 


. 


76.2 


8.8 


.0 


84.9 


31.3 


Aspen/birch group 


181.6 


1,627.9 


575.7 


.0 


2,385.2 


5.7 


Nonstocked 


.0 


.0 


.0 


51.7 


51.7 


40.4 


All forest types 


5,293.6 


9,796.5 


1,981.2 


51.7 


17,123 . 1 


.5 


SE 


3.3 


1.9 


5.7 


40 . 4 


.5 





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Table Cll. Net volume of all trees on timberland by class of timber and species 
group, Maine, 1982 

(In millions of cubic feet) 



Species group 

Class of timber All 

Other Soft Hard species SE 

Pines softwoods hardwoods hardwoods 



Growing-stock trees: 



Sawtimber size 




1,509 


.4 


6,937. 


6 


1,781. 


8 


2, 


119 


.8 


12,348. 


6 


1 


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Poletimber size 




313 


.4 


6,413. 


8 


3,428. 


9 


1, 


604 


.5 


11,760. 


5 


1 


.5 


Total growing-stock 


trees 


1,822 


.9 


13,351. 


3 


5,210. 


7 


3, 


724 


.2 


24, 109. 


1 


1 


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Sawtimber size 




108 


.7 


246. 


7 


134. 


8 




229 


.2 


719. 


4 


4 


.3 


Poletimber size 




37 


.9 


490. 


4 


386. 


3 




307 


.7 


1,222. 


4 


2 


.9 


Total rough trees 




146 


.6 


737 . 


1 


521 . 


1 




536 


.9 


1,941. 


7 


2 


.6 


Rotten trees : 






























Sawtimber size 




13 


.5 


145. 





104 . 


9 




230 


.3 


493 . 


7 


4 


.6 


Poletimber size 




6 


.2 


158. 


1 


135. 


5 




104 


.9 


404 . 


6 


4 


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Total rotten trees 




19 


.7 


303 . 


1 


240 . 


4 




335 


.1 


898. 


3 


3 


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Salvable dead" trees: 






























Sawtimber size 




3 


. 7 


175. 


8 


26. 


7 




31 


.4 


237 . 


5 


6 


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Poletimber size 




3 


. 1 


220. 


6 


47. 


9 




26 


.6 


298. 


2 


5 


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Total salvable dead 


trees 


6 


.7 


396 . 


4 


74. 


6 




58 


.0 


535 . 


7 


4 


.6 


All classes 




1,995 


.9 


14 , 787 . 


9 


6,046. 


8 


4, 


654 


.2 


27,484. 


8 


1 


.2 


SE 




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Table C14. Net volume of growing-stock trees on timberland by species and stand-size class, 
Maine, 19 82 

(In millions of cubic feet) 



Stand-size class 

Species group All 





Saw- 




Pole 




odpxXIlCj cilia 


Non- 


c las ses 


or, 




timber 


timber 


seedling 


stocked 






Balsam fir 


1,493 


.8 


2,436 


.8 


79.9 


.0 


4,010.5 


3.2 


White spruce 


198 


.8 


355 


.4 


23.2 


.0 


577 .4 


7.6 


Black spruce 


87 


.0 


357 


.7 


9 fi Q 


n 

■ VJ 


A 1 "3 fi 


19 4 

± Z • ft 


XvtSU opi U. l_ t: 


2,033 


.5 


2,882 


.5 


61.0 


. 


4,977.0 


J • o 


Red. pine 


23 


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45 


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9 A 
Z . 4 


. u 


7 1 7 


Z / . fl 


rXuCIl pxilfcr 


6 


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3 


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Q 
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^ A 7 
J ft • / 


T7acf Y*T*i Wr". 1 "t~ P± ni TIP 
LuS Ldl !J Will UC X11C 


844 


.8 


857 


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37.6 


. 


1,740.3 


6 . 


iNorunern wnitc-Lcuai 


918 


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876 


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A~\ 9 

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1 ft o c p 


R Q 

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726 


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611 


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1 R R 




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flfhor cnf fTirnnHc 
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28 


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76 


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122.9 


x *± • o 


T< 4— —) "I riftr-l-T.TAAnC 

lUT-dl aUI LWUUUb 


6,361 


. 7 


8,503 


.9 


^ n fi fi 

O U O • D 


. VJ 


ic 17 4 9 
Xj,X/4.Z 


9 n 


D <-■] TTl 3 T-\ 1 iO 

I\t3a IllcipXtr 


590 


.2 


1 , 377 


.3 


4j • o 


n 
. u 


9 mi ^ 

z , u x x . o 


^ 7 
J • / 


oUydX IlldpXfc; 


Q 7 


A 


tin 
JZU 


n 
• u 




■ u 


1 d Q fi R 


O • X 


icllUW X)XXL,I1 


551 


. 7 


429 


.9 


1 A A 


n 

. u 


q q n 

-7 -7 O • U 


3 • X 


Paper birch 


9 R R 






_ 2 


27.4 


.0 


1,234.6 


4.9 


Hickory 




. 1 




. 


.0 


.0 


.1 


100.0 


American beech 


^ 4 


7 


9 Q C, 


1 

. ± 


5.5 


. 


666 . 4 


7.8 


White ash 


75 


.3 


195 


.8 


3.8 


.0 


275 .0 


11.2 


Aspen 


210 


.4 


1,280 


.0 


39.0 


. 


1,529.4 


6.3 


Black cherry 


3 


. 1 


16 


. 7 


.5 


.0 


20.3 


22.3 


Ta7 Vi i 4- d r~\ 3 \r 
W11X Lc (JclJS. 


5 


.4 


9 


.9 


. z 


• u 


1 R fi 
X D . 


9 9 A 

Z Z a *4 


Northern red oak 


134 


.4 


254 


.3 


9.7 


.0 


398 .4 


8.1 


Other red oaks 


4 


.8 


12 


.7 


.6 


.0 


18.0 


22.2 


American basswood 


11 


.1 


12 


.9 


.0 


.0 


24.0 


32 .9 


Elm 


22 


.9 


15 


. 2 


.5 


.0 


38.6 


38.4 


Other hardwoods 


63 


.3 


141 


.6 


5.5 


.0 


210.4 


10.2 


Total hardwoods 


3,259 


.8 


5,514 


.8 


160.3 


.0 


8,935.0 


2.2 


Total, all species 


9,621 


.5 


14, 018 


.7 


468 .9 


.0 


24,109.1 


1.2 


SE 


3 


.7 


2 


.5 


8.6 


.0 


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188 



McWilliams, William H.; Butler, Brett J.; Caldwell, Laurence E.; Griffith, Douglas M.; 
Hoppus, Michael L.; Laustsen, Kenneth M.; Lister, Andrew J.; Lister, Tonya W.; 
Metzler, Jacob W.; Morin, Randall S.; Sader, Steven A.; Stewart, Lucretia B.; 
Steinman, James R.; Westfall, James, A.; Williams, David A.; Whitman, Andrew, 
Woodall, Christopher W. 2005. The forests of Maine: 2003. Resour. Bull. NE-164. 
Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern 
Research Station. 188 p. 

In 1999, the Maine Forest Service and USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory 
and Analysis program implemented a new system for inventorying and monitoring 
Maine's forests. The effects of the spruce budworm epidemic continue to affect the 
composition, structure, and distribution of Maine's forested ecosystems. The area 
of forest land in Maine has remained stable since the 1970's. Although relatively 
small acreages of forest are converted to other land uses, these conversions often 
remove highly valued forests such as white pine. The total inventory volume of live 
trees increased slightly, indicating the beginning of a response of Maine's forest to the 
tremendous devastation from spruce budworm. 

Keywords: forest composition; forest vitality; sustainability; timber volume; ingrowth. 



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Headquarters of the Northeastern Research Station is in Newtown Square, 
Pennsylvania. Field laboratories are maintained at: 

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Delaware, Ohio 

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Hamden, Connecticut, in cooperation with Yale University 
Morgantown, West Virginia, in cooperation with West Virginia University 
Parsons, West Virginia 
Princeton, West Virginia 

Syracuse, New York, in cooperation with the State University of New York, 
College of Environmental Sciences and Forestry at Syracuse University 

Warren, Pennsylvania 



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